Insulin is a hormone which is produced by the beta cells of your pancreas. It is secreted in larger amounts of the meals and in small amounts probably. Because of this hormone the cells can take in the blood sugar for energy or storage. It is also the main fat storage hormone in your body and it tells fat cells to store fat. Insulin can also prevent breakdown of the stored fat. If your cells are insulin resistant, the blood sugar and insulin levels will go up in your body. Such a condition can result in different types of health problems like obesity and metabolic problems. When you overeat, and specially eat more sugar, refined carbohydrates and fast-food, they cause insulin resistance in your body.
You will need to avoid or minimize sugar consumption including fructose and sucrose. You will also need to reduce carbohydrate consumption and go for a low carb diet. Include more protein in your diet as it will raise insulin in the short-term. Ensure that you are adding healthy fats like omega-3 fatty seeds in your diet. You will also need to exercise regularly as that will improve insulin sensitivity after a few weeks.
Leptin is a hormone produced by your fat cells and it is known as a satiety hormone which helps you in reducing your appetite and makes you feel full. It communicates with the hypothalamus, which is the portion of your brain that regulates appetite and food intake. Leptin will signal your brain to stop eating when there is enough fat in storage. People who are obese or overweight generally have high levels of leptin in their blood and it can be as high as four times as in people of normal weight. Because of leptin resistance leptin signaling is impaired and the stop eating message does not reach the brain as a result of which obese or overweight people keep overeating.
You will need to avoid inflammatory foods like sugary drinks and trans fat. At the same time you will need to eat more anti-inflammatory foods like fatty fish stop exercising regularly will also improve leptin sensitivity. Getting enough sleep is essential in reducing leptin levels and increased appetite. It can also take some supplements like alpha-lipoic acid and fish oil to lose more weight.
Ghrelin is known as hunger hormones. When you have an empty stomach, it will start releasing ghrelin, which will signal the hypothalamus and it will in turn tell you to eat. Ghrelin levels are generally highest before eating and lowest an hour after you had a meal. In case of obese and overweight people, fasting ghrelin levels are generally lower than people of normal weight. In such people, the level of ghrelin decreases slightly after eating a meal. Because of that the hypothalamus does not receive a strong signal to stop eating and so obese and overweight people tend to eat more than necessary.
You will need to avoid high-fructose corn syrup and sugar sweetened drinks because they can impair ghrelin response after meals. You should also eat more protein at every meal specially breakfast if you want to reduce ghrelin levels. Reducing ghrelin levels will increase satiety and you will stop eating more than necessary.