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Kidney stones and causes

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Kidney stones are nothing but hard deposits inside the kidneys. They are generally made of minerals and salts. There are different causes of kidney stones and they can affect different parts of the urinary tract. They can impact from the kidneys to the bladder. If the urine somehow becomes more concentrated, in that case, minerals can crystalize and then stick together to form the kidney stones.

If you can get the stones detected in time, they will not cause any permanent damage. Drinking lots of water may also help to pass the stones through urine. In some cases, the stones may be difficult to remove. If they are lodged in the urinary tract, associated with a urinary infection or cause other problems in the body, in those cases surgery may be necessary.

Preventive measures are very important in case of people to stop the possibility of recurring kidney stones. It is specially true in case of patients who have a higher risk of developing them again.


Many people who have kidney stones may not show any symptoms at all. If it moves around within your kidney or goes into the tube connecting the kidney and bladder (ureter), then you may see some symptoms. The most common symptoms of kidney stones include-

  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain on urination
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain of different intensity that comes in waves
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Cloudy or a foul smelling urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Urinating less amount of urine

The pain associated with kidney stones may change in location and degree. It may shift to another location and may also increase in intensity. The intensity of the pain increases when the stone moves through your urinary tract.

If you are seeing these symptoms regularly for some time, it is important for you to go and see a doctor.

Types of kidney stones

There are different types of kidney stones. Kidney stones can be different and knowing about them will help you to find out the ways to prevent and reduce the risk of getting more kidney stones. Types of kidney stones are-

Calcium stones

Most of the kidney stones are calcium stones. They are in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance present in food. It is also made by your liver every day. It is present in high quantities in some fruits and vegetables, chocolate and nuts. In case of high doses of determined D, dietary factors, intestinal bypass surgery and because of metabolic disorders the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine may increase.

Struvite stones

They form after an infection such as urinary tract infection.

Uric acid stones

If you do not drink enough fluids, uric acid stones may form in your kidneys. If you eat a high protein diet or if you have gout, then also you may have uric acid stones.

Cystine stones

It is seen in case of people suffering from a hereditary disorder.

Causes of kidney stones

It is very difficult to pinpoint a specific cause of kidney stones. It may not have any definite or a single cause. There are several factors which can lead to kidney stones.

These stones are generally seen when the urine contains more crystal forming substances. These substances include calcium, uric acid and oxalate. When they are in higher quantity, the fluid in your urine cannot dilute them. In another case, if your urine lacks the substances that prevent crystal formation by sticking together, then also you may suffer from kidney stone problem.

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