Haemorrhoids can be explained as clumps or masses of tissue. These are present in that anal canal containing the blood vessels. The canal also contains supporting tissue of muscle and elastic fibres. The canal is the last 4 centimetres through which the waste (stool) goes out of the body. The anus is the opening of the canal. Even though haemorrhoids are considered as abnormal, but they are present in every individual. If the haemorrhoidal cushions enlarge only then they can create problems. Only in that case, they are abnormal or considered as a disease.
The haemorrhoids that create problems are present both in men and women. They're mostly sane in a population of the age 45 to 65 years.
Haemorrhoid can be external or internal. If the haemorrhoid starts at the top of the anal canal, it is known as internal haemorrhoid. If the origination of haemorrhoid is at the lower end of the anal canal, then it is called as external haemorrhoid.
Symptoms of haemorrhoid
Haemorrhoid may result in several signs and symptoms-
¢ During bowel movements, painless bleeding may happen.
¢ Irritation and itching in the anal region
¢ pain and discomfort
¢ swelling around the anus
¢ painful lump near the anus
¢ leakage of feces
The symptoms generally depend on the location. In case of internal haemorrhoids, haemorrhoids are seen inside the rectum. They generally don't create any discomfort.
Irritation or straining during passing stool may damage the surface of the haemorrhoids and as a result bleeding may happen. Due to straining, sometimes an internal haemorrhoid may surface through the anal opening. This condition is called as prolapsed or protruding haemorrhoid. Such condition can be painful and irritating.
External haemorrhoids are generally found under the skin near the anus. In case of irritation, such external haemorrhoids can cause itching and bleeding. If haemorrhoids are full of blood, they may form a clot and it may be very painful due to swelling and inflammation.
In general, it can treat hemorrhoids yourself at home, but sometimes you may need medicines and surgical procedures.
In case of haemorrhoids that cause mild discomfort, the doctor may prescribe over-the-counter creams, pads, ointments and suppositories. Such medicines will relieve the pain and itching temporarily. They may contain hazel or hydrocortisone. You should not use over-the-counter medicines for more than a week unless prescribed by the doctor, as they may have some other side-effects including inflammation, skin rash and skin thinning.
Minimally invasive procedures
In case of external haemorrhoid, if a blood clot is there, the doctor may remove it with a simple incision. A procedure will bring fast relief. In case of continuous bleeding or painful haemorrhoids other minimally invasive procedures can be followed. Such procedures can be done in the outpatient department.
Rubber band ligation
The doctors places one or more rubber bands at the base of an internal haemorrhoid so as to block the circulation. The haemorrhoid then withers and then falls off in a week. It is a very effective process for many patients. Banding haemorrhoids can be uncomfortable and it may result in bleeding.
Injection or Sclerotherapy is a procedure, in which the doctor injects a chemical into the haemorrhoid and thereby shrinks it. This is a simple process and it does not cause much pain. However, the procedure is less effective than the rubber band ligation process.
Compilation is another technique used by the doctors.
There are different surgical procedures followed which include haemorrhoid removal, haemorrhoid stapling etc.
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