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Nausea And Vomiting

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Andreea Pintilie

Introduction to nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of an underlying disease and not a specific  illness. Nausea is the sensation that the stomach wants to empty itself, while  vomiting (emesis) or throwing up, is the act of forcible emptying of the  stomach

Vomiting is a violent act in which the stomach has to overcome the pressures  that are normally in place to keep food and secretions within the stomach.

  1. The  stomach almost turns itself inside out – f
  2. orcing itself into the lower portion  of the esophagus
  3. (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) during a  vom
  4. iting episode.

vomtingWhat causes nausea or vomiting?

There are numerous causes of nausea and vomiting. These symptoms may be due  to the following:

  • acute gastritis
  • central causes (signals from the brain)
  • association with other illnesses remote from the stomach
  • medications and medical treatments
  • mechanical obstruction of the bowel

Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis (gastro=stomach + it is= inflammation) is often caused by an  offending agent which irritates the lining of the stomach. Examples of these  include:

  • Infections: Infections are often the cause, whether it is a common virus or an  infection that is contracted from travel. There may be associated crampy upper abdominal pain, fever ,and chills may be present. Common viral infections  include noroviruses and rotavirus. Parasitic infections often are associated  with diarrhea but may also have a component of nausea and vomiting. Infection by  bacteria in the Helicobacter family (like H. Pylori) can also be the infectious  agent.
  • Stomach flu: Stomach flu is a non-specific term used to describe vomiting and diarrhea  associated with a viral infection. It should not be confused with influenza,  whose symptoms include fever, chills, cough, and myalgias (muscle pain).
  • Food poisoning: Food poisoning may cause significant vomiting and usually is caused by a  bacterial toxin. Symptoms begin within a couple of hours of eating contaminated or  poorly prepared food and may last for 1-2 days. Sources of food poisoning  include Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, E. coli, Listeria, or Clostridium  botulinum (botulism).
  • Other stomach irritants: alcohol, smoking, and non steroidal  anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen may irritate the  stomach lining.
  • Peptic ulcer disease:Peptic ulcer disease can range from mild irritation of the stomach lining  to the formation of a defect in the protective lining of the stomach called an  ulcer.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, reflux esophagitis): Nausea or  vomiting is also associated with irritation of the lining of the esophagus