New Urine Test Can Determine The Risk Of Prostate Cancer
A team of researchers created a investigational urine test which can determine prostate cancer risk in men with increased serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), according to a study which was conducted on more than 1000 men. Previous research has show that this urine test is 100% accurate in detecting a gene mutation which is directly related to prostate cancer.
Anyway, this urine test, which can detect a gene mutation ( a fusion between TMPRSS2 gene and ERG gene), has a weak point, which is the fact that this mutation is found in only about 50% of patients with prostate cancers. For this reason, researchers felt the need for this new study, which is aiming to detect prostate cancer through a urine test, to introduce a new marker, in addition to existing ones. This new marker is prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3).
All of the men who were included in the study had increased serum levels of PSA and were subjected either to a biopsy or to a prostatectomy. The men who were included in this study were evaluated for TMPRSS2, ERG and PCA3 mutations, but some of them were tested with the first version of the urine test and others of them were tested with the new urine test. The researchers chose that the patients should be included in groups with low risk, intermediate risk and high risk for developing prostate cancer.
Of 1065 men, that benefit for prostate biopsies, 363 (34%) had a lower risk, 346 (32%) had a intermediate risk , and 356(33%) had a higher risk for developing prostate cancer. These findings were compared to the biopsy results. Biopsy results indicated cancer in 21% of patients that were included in the group with lower risk, in 43% of patients who were included in the group with intermediate risk, and in 69% of patients who were included in the group with higher risk for developing prostate cancer.
The researchers concluded that this new urine test, significantly improves the ability to predict if a man has prostate cancer. Also this test may represent a course of treatment for men with increased serum levels of PSA, because this test can decide if a person needs a prostate biopsy and then a surgical intervention or only needs that the urinary levels of TMPRSS2, ERG and PCA3 to be followed up.
Many men have increased serum PSA levels than those with prostate cancer, which can be difficult to prove without a biopsy. This test aims to be an intermediate step, before it is realized a prostate biopsy which can demonstrate the existence of a prostate cancer.