What is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)?
ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common behavioural disorder which starts during childhood and may even extend up to adulthood. Experts say that it is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder.
People with ADHD may often find it difficult to focus on something without being distracted. He has greater difficulty in controlling what he is doing or saying and is less able to control how much physical activity is appropriate for a particular situation. People with ADHD are more impulsive and restless.
There are three types of ADHD: the Predominantly Inattentive Type, the Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type and the Combined Type. The Predominantly Inattentive Type finds it very difficult to organize or finish a task. They could not pay attention to details and may find it difficult to follow instructions or conversations. The Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type may have problems in keeping still. These people may fidget and talk a lot; as smaller children, they may be constantly climbing, jumping or running about. These people have the tendency to interrupt others, grab things and speak at inappropriate times. They have difficulty waiting their turn and find it hard to listen to directions. A person with this type of ADHD will have more injuries and/or accidents than others. The combined type have equal predominance of symptoms.
Children with ADHD are often restless, overactive, fidgety and are constantly chattering or continuously interrupting people. They cannot concentrate for long on specific tasks and are inattentive. They may find it hard to wait for their turn during play, conversations or standing in line.
ADHD is said to more common in boys than girls. A person's risk may also increase if he or she has a close relative who has ADHD. ADHD is said to be biological in nature. Many reputable scientists believe ADHD is the result of chemical imbalances in the brain. Others have also blamed the consumption of food additives such as food colourings. Mercury exposure is also a risk factor for the disease.
Diagnosing ADHD cannot be done physically or through blood or urine tests or even scans. The diagnosis is usually done by a specialist in behaviour such as a psychiatrist, psychologist or pediatrician. The child's behaviour patterns are first observed; data regarding the child’s behavior at home and at school will also be studied.
ADHD is treated using medications such as amphetamines, methyphenidate, and others. Some experts claim that physical exercise in the form of exercise sessions for 20 minutes a day can significantly improve focus in children with ADHD.
Miswired Brain Can Cause ADHD
A recent study has shown that miswiring of neurons in the brain’s reward system can contribute to disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study, done by researchers from Mayo Clinic in Florida and at Aarhus University in Denmark, was published in the journal Neuron. The scientists looked at dopaminergic neurons, which regulate pleasure, motivation, reward, and cognition, and have been implicated in development of ADHD. They soon discovered the presence of a receptor system that is critical, during embryonic development, for correct wiring of the dopaminergic brain area. They also discovered that after brain maturation, a cut in the same receptor, SorCS2, produces a two-chain receptor that induces cell death following damage to the peripheral nervous system. They concluded that miswiring of dopaminergic neurons in mice results in hyperactivity and attention deficits as that found in ADHD.
Doctor’s Order – Recognizing and treating ADHD – Click Here!
For more medical breakthroughs, feel free to browse this site.