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High Grade Prostate Cancer May Be Linked To Chronic Inflammation

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Prostate cancer is one of the top killers in males around the world. A recent study has shown that chronic inflammation can lead to high grade prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a disease which affects men and affects the prostate, a gland that is a part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is the gland that is located under the bladder and in front of the rectum in males. The prostate contains tiny glands which produce a fluid that is a part of semen. This fluid serves to protect and nourish sperm cells in the semen. The prostate gland is also involved in urine control because it is located near the urethra. This function is accomplished by the use of prostate muscle fibers that contract and release to control and release the flow of the urine through the urethra.

The cells in the prostate gland produce prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein which helps keep the semen in liquid state. PSA can be observed in the bloodstream and if it is in high levels in the blood, this may mean prostate cancer or any other problem that affects the prostate. The PSA levels may be affected by several factors such as medications that aim to change male hormone levels.

In older men, the prostate may continue to grow and may make it difficult for them to pass out urine due to the fact that the prostate gland may cause the urethra to collapse. This condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Though it is not yet prostate cancer, it must be treated.

Prostate cancer starts when cancer cells start to grow within the gland cells. The cancer is known as adenocarcinoma and may progress very slowly. Prostate cancer tends to alter the size and shape of cancer cells in the prostate; this change is known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this state, the cells are still within the prostate and have not moved to other parts of the body. The changes in the cells are often seen in the microscope. These cancer cells can also move to other parts of the prostate and may have low-grade or high-grade cell changes. High grade cell changes are more abnormal than low-grade cell changes. High grade PIN may have a significantly greater risk of having prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is staged using the TNM (Tumor/Nodes/Metastases) grading and the Gleason scoring.

Prostate cancer has several signs and symptoms, however in some men there may be little or none of these symptoms. The patient with prostate cancer urinates more often and may get up during the night to urinate. The patient may also have difficulty of urinating and may find it hard to continue urinating once he has started. There may also be blood in the urine and there may be pain on urination. Ejaculation may also be painful in some males and there may also be difficulties in achieving or maintaining erection.

Far-advanced prostate may bring about symptoms such as bone pain especially in the spine or pelvis or ribs, pain on the proximal femur, weakness of the legs, urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence.

Prostate cancer has no known exact cause however there are some risk factors for this disease. Older age in men may be one risk factor as well as a family history of prostate cancer. Faulty genes such as BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 may also be risk factors for prostate cancer. Poor diet choices, medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases, exposure to Sgent Orange, and other factors.

Chronic Inflammation and Prostate Cancer

A recent study has shown that men who have chronic inflammation symptoms may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation. Researchers from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center also found out that the link between inflammation and cancer was higher in patients with high-grade prostate cancers. The results of this study were published in the April 18 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention; the researchers utilized data from Southwest Oncology Group’s Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. They examined benign tissue samples taken from the biopsies of 191 men with prostate cancer and 209 men without cancer. This is why chronic inflammation has to be controlled in patients with risk factors for prostate cancer.

To read more news about prostate cancer, feel free to read our other articles on this site.