Acute Myeloid Leukemia
According to a study published in Cancer Cell, researchers from the United Kingdom have discovered a new drug for the treatment of an aggressiveÂ form of myeloid leukemia. Acute myeloidÂ leukemia is a cancer of the myeloidÂ line of blood cells, which is characterized by abnormal growth of white blood cells. This increase causes aberrant accumulation of white blood cells in bone marrow, which interfere with normal blood cell production. MyeloidÂ leukemia causes anemia, decreased platelets (thrombocytopenia) and normal white blood cells (neutrophilic).
Symptoms AML installationÂ are fatigue, dyspnea, bleeding, bruising and increased risk of infection. In terms of causes, they are not clearly defined, but there have been questioned different risk factors such as exposure to certain environmental factors (benzene, radiation), to certain drugs (doxorobicina, cyclophosphamide), chromosomal abnormalities, various rare syndromes (FanconiÂ anemia, Down syndrome , Bloom syndrome, neurofibromatosis). However, most patients do not have known risk factors. Untreated, acute myeloid leukemia leads to death within weeks or months.
Researchers at the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research at The University of Manchester have found that by blocking an enzyme is inhibitedÂ the production ofÂ proteins that causes an aggressive type of leukemia, calledÂ mixed lineageÂ leukaemia (MLL). The researchers created synthetic molecules block LSD1Â , the enzyme involved in modulating gene activity that causes cancer. Moreover, the lead study author Dr Tim Somervaille, group leader at Cancer Research UK’s Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, said that the experiments on both patients and mice showed promising results.
The National Cancer InstituteÂ divided treatmentÂ for leukemiaÂ into two categories, namely remission induction and consolidation therapy. The first is to remove all visible leukemia cells while the second refers to destroying the remainingÂ cells and relapse prevention. Until now, treatment options were very limited, ie chemotherapy or radiotherapy or bone marrow transplant. Important to remember that in Â the last option, that isÂ bone marrow transplant,Â Â the patient still has to follow chemotherapy and then receive stem cells from a donor.
Acute leukemia is a curable disease, but prognosis depends on various factors. The average survival at 5 years is about 25%. In terms of survival rates,Â the youngerÂ had better survival rates than older adults. Dr SomervailleÂ pointed out the importance of developing new drugs to treat leukemia. Many patients cannot be treated with chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thus, using drugs that block LSD1Â is a new hope for such patients.Also, Dr Somervaille believes that this new therapeutic targetÂ may be useful in treating other cancers, but more studies must be done in this respect.