404 Error - page not found
We're sorry, but the page you are looking for doesn't exist.
You can go to the homepage

OUR LATEST POSTS

For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

Complementary Reading

5

You have decided to quit smoking and you have done that already. But you need to be careful about the fact that staying tobacco free is more important and difficult. Let’s find out how you can stay tobacco free after you quit smoking.

Dealing with withdrawal

Once you quit smoking, you will need to deal with withdrawal. When you try withdrawal from nicotine, it has two parts physical and mental. There may be some physical symptoms but they are not life-threatening. They may tempt you to again start smoking. However, the mental part of quitting and staying tobacco free is the bigger challenge for you and anyone else who wants to stay tobacco free. Tobacco is already linked with many of the things of your life that you do. It may be linked to your waking hours, eating, drinking, going to the bathroom etc. You will need to unlink them from tobacco. Because of these links, you feel the need to again start smoking.

Rationalisation can be your enemy

If you want to overcome urges or cravings for smoking, you will need to notice and identify rationalisations and stop them. Rationalisation is nothing but a wrong thought which seems fine at the time. However, it is not based on reality. Such rationalisation may justify use of the vehicle but you don’t want to believe them and start using tobacco again. There may be many rationalisation in your head to justify smoking. However good they may seem, you will need to understand them and stop them from urging you to go back to smoking again. These are like some messages which may take you back to your smoking days. It may be necessary to change your thoughts to something else to get out of this strap.

Some important ideas

These ideas can help you to stay committed to quitting.

Avoid temptation

You find any type of temptation and you should avoid them. Always stay away from people and places which may tempt you to smoke tobacco. This is more important during the initial days just after quitting. After some time, your confidence in yourself will grow and you’ll be better equipped to take those temptations on.

Get more active

If you become more active, that’ll help you to staying tobacco free. It will also help you to reduce your stress. When you exercise regularly it will keep you busy while providing health benefits to you. This is like a good distraction which will distract you from the urge, temptation and realisation that may take you back to smoking. You can also do something which you have been planning for some time but could not find the time to do. You need to distract yourself and keep yourself busy all the time so that you don’t have time to think about smoking and tobacco.

Reward yourself

When you reward yourself for a behaviour, it is more likely to strengthen your behaviour which is going to be a habit after some time. So, whenever you are able to fight the urge or temptation to avoid smoking, you should always reward yourself. That little task will help you to create a positive habit of not touching tobacco any more. It will help you to feel better about yourself and more satisfied. You can simply put the money for the tobacco in a jar and at the end of the week or month; you can buy yourself a gift which will be your reward.

References

1. Quit Smoking Magic – New!!
2. Benefits of Quitting
3. Quitting Smoking

6

Scars formed as a part of the natural healing process after any injury. The appearance of scar, and the treatment options depend on several factors. The depth and size of the wound or cut, location of the injury, age, genes, sex and ethnicity all will decide the treatment options and the time necessary for healing.

Different types of scars

Scars may be of several different types-

Keloid scars

These scars happen due to an overly aggressive healing process. Such scars may go beyond the original injury. In some cases, such kaloid scars may hamper movement of your body parts. There may be different types of treatment options available for such scars. Steroid injections, surgery or silicone sheets for flattening the scar may be used for treatment. Cryotherapy or freezing therapy where liquid nitrogen is used may also be used for treatment of such scars. Keloid formation can be prevented using pressure treatment or gel pads with silicone. It is mostly seen in case of people with dark skin.

Contracture scars

In case of burning accidents, such scars may form. They result in tightened skin and as a result may be difficult for you to move. Sometimes such scars may go deep and may affect nerves and muscles.

Hypertrophic scars

These are easy to find out as they are raised, red scars. They look similar to keloids but they generally do not spread beyond the boundary of the injury. For treatment of such scars, steroid injections for reducing inflammation and silicone sheets to flatten the scar may be used.

Acne scars

Scars may also develop due to acne problem. People suffering from severe acne may have those scars. Different types of acne scars are available such as deep pits, wavelike or angular scars which appear because of severe acne. The treatment of such acne scars will depend on the type of acne scars.

Available treatment options

There are different types of treatment options available for different types of scars.

Over-the-counter or prescription medicines

There are different types of over-the-counter or prescription medicines are available for treatment of scars. They are available in creams, ointments or gels. If you have any scars due to injuries or wounds, or if you have scars as a result of some surgery, you can always find some over-the-counter medicines for treatment of those scars. If such over-the-counter medicines are not available, there are different types of prescription medications available which will help you to treate your scars. Steroids or certain antihistamines are generally prescribed for treatment of teaching and scars. In case of people suffering from scars resulting from acne, the dermatologist may prescribe something suitable for that. Pressure treatment or silicone gel sheeting is also used for treatment of scars. They are mostly used as preventive care.

Surgical removal or treatment

In case of deeper scars, there may be other treatment options available such as surgical removal or treatment. Skin grafts, dermabrasion, excision, and laser surgery are some of the treatment options available. In case of skin grafts, the surgeon will use skin from another part of your body. It is mostly use in case of people who have burned scholars. Surgery is especially needed for scars that restrict movement. In such cases, sometimes surgery may be the only option available. However, before you go for any type of surgical removal treatment, you should wait for some time after your surgery because many scars fade over time and they are almost invisible to most of the people.

Injections

Steroid injections are also useful for keloids or hypertrophic scars.

References

1. The Scar Solution – Fast, Natural Scar Removal From Home
2. Acne treatments
3. Laser treatment for scars and wounds.

.

Living with Parkinson’s may make your everyday duties more frustrating, but it has also awoken a world of creativity within the community, people all over the world coming up with brand new solutions to better face these challenges. Sometimes, these fixes can cost a little bit of money, and other times they cost nothing whatsoever, but by clicking around the internet and having a conversation with your physical therapist, you can explore and discover new and exciting ways to reduce your symptoms' interruptions to your life. Here are some of the best tips to get you moving.

The Kitchen

Parkinson's definitely does not make kitchen life any easier, but with a few tiny tweaks to your approaches and utensils, you can still find much enjoyment in the art of cooking. To avoid mess, favour baking over frying, place food on tinfoil when grilling, wrap cling film around anything your microwave, and always pour fine goods (like sugar or flour) over the sink in case they spill.

When it comes to eating itself, try and stick to foods which you can pick up with your hands. You can even use your condition as an excuse to snack on healthier foods, such as fruit and fresh vegetables. However, if using utensils is inescapable, consider purchasing cutlery with ribbed handles or using liquid rubber to stick onto the sets you already own. There are also various specially-designed forks, knives, and spoons just for people with Parkinson's, which are definitely worth looking at.

https://homemedicalreviews.com/spoon-for-parkinsons

The Bathroom

If you have a bit of money, you may want to consider installing touch faucets around the house rather than struggling to turn clunky taps just to get water. You should also invest in a sonic toothbrush which will do all the necessary scrubbing motions for you, and look out for products (like toothpaste or shampoos) that can be simply popped open, without the unnecessary twist tops.

Another simple yet often overlooked technique, is to sit down when you do anything! Whether cleaning your face or brushing your teeth or shaving, standing up will only further complicate the task by testing your balance and your hand accuracy at the same time, which is not the most practical way to get it done! Take a seat, take it easy, and take your time.

Electronics

Of course, the less complicated the mechanisms are, the better, which is why many people affected with Parkinson's have traded their standard front door lock and key system with a coded keypad to get into their house. In a similar vein, touch lights illuminate the room without even needing to think about the location of their switch, which is so useful, it's surprising that every home is not fitted with them already.

When it comes to phones and devices, enlarged icons are obviously a bonus, but in difficult times, their voice recognition features could be the blessing you are looking for. Granted, it will be annoying at first as it misinterprets your every second word, but as you learn to practice speaking with clarity, it will quickly become a much easier solution over standard texting.

Clothing

Thankfully, these days so many fashion designers have dedicated their talents to the world of Parkinson's that no one has to struggle just to feel confident and stylish anymore. Look out for clothing which opens from the front, and always choose Velcro options over zippers. There are even some sneaky shirts and dresses that have buttons on the outside but close using magnets, your own little secret between you and your clothing. If you have been known to occasionally spill food on yourself, pick clothing which bursts with colors and patterns to disguise any misfortunate mishaps.

When it comes to footwear, the easier you can slip them on and off, the better, and ensure you select a pair with a slight curve in them to avoid trips and falls.

Mobility

By continuously challenging yourself with small, achievable goals, you can improve your balance whilst combating your symptoms. Take the stairs if you can, walk around the house as much as possible, dance when the mood strikes you, and take a quick nap when you've had enough. When it comes to small tasks like brushing your teeth or combing your hair, purposefully use your least able hand to see how far you can push it.

Just remember: set clear intentions, take small steps, and focus on one job at a time. However, if you eventually need to consider a wheelchair or any other form of mobility equipment, always test every available option before making the purchase, because your comfort and happiness is the main priority in dealing with this matter. Never forget to look out for number 1. You.

.

 

 

Molecular chaperones are a class of molecules involved in protein folding, which plays a key role in protein homeostasis in the cells of all organisms. They increase the stability of the native conformation in proteins and prevent abnormal aggregate formation (1). For this reason, pharmacological chaperones are considered to be very efficient therapeutic agents for treating various conformational diseases; encouraging scientists to focus on understanding this complex universe.

Why are Chaperones So Important?

Proteins require a 3D macromolecular structure in order to carry out their normal biological functions. The processes of covalent folding or unfolding and assembly require the assistance of specific proteins called chaperones. A chaperone is a ligand that assists in the assembly of nucleosomes from folded histones and DNA, especially in the nucleus (2,3) where they are involved in the construction of folded subunits into oligomeric structures (4).

Chaperones also prevent newly synthesized polypeptide chains from aggregating into nonfunctional structures (5). Some are very specific and convey structural information onto proteins allowing them to achieve a functional steric shape. Protein aggregation is known to be the cause of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease, and chaperones are an important part of preventing these diseases (5).

Additionally, chaperones can function as heat shock proteins. This expression can occur in response to elevated temperatures or other cellular stresses (6) that can cause protein misfolding, therefore, they prevent and correct consequent cell damage derived from the loss ofprotein stability.Hsp70 and Hsp90, are the main families of chaperones induced in response to cellular stress, but other families such as Hsp100, Hsp60, Hsp40, and Hsp27 do exist as well.

Still other chaperones are important for transport across membranes, which shows that they are relevant actors in protein degradation. Chaperones can also work as foldases and support protein folding in an ATP-dependent manner or operate as holdases and bind folding intermediates to prevent their aggregation.

Destabilizer Chaperones

Recent studies have provided new insights into the world of chaperones and the affinity that these macromolecules have for unstructured and structured protein chains. Furthermore, these new findings have proven the existence of destabilizer chaperones, which are compounds that destabilize the native conformation upon binding to the non-native state of a protein. It has also been discovered that coenzymes play an active and associated role in this process; for example, an experiment on the stability of aldoketo reductases concluded that when coenzyme NADP+ is absent, inhibitors such as isolithocholic acid stabilize the aldoketo reductase AKR1A1 upon binding, but destabilize AKR1B10 (7). In contrast, in the presence of NADP+, they destabilize AKR1A1 and stabilize AKR1B10. This proves that many intermediaries are involved in protein stability and for that reason, many pathways have not yet been fully described despite the various approaches that have been applied.

Pharmacological Chaperones

It is not surprising that many treatments nowadays are employing pharmacological chaperones to treat diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson, Alzheimer and Fabry. However, the road is long and much more research needs to be done to fully understand misfolding and misrouting in addition to the role of chaperones and co-chaperones and how they are recruited to specific substrates to prevent or correct anomalies that are caused by diseases and aging.

  1. Requena J., Montalvo A., Fraga J. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 301326. Published online 2015 Jun 18. doi: 10.1155/2015/301326
  2. Richardson RT; Alekseev OM; Grossman G; et al. (July 2006). Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein (NASP), a Linker Histone Chaperone That is Required for Cell Proliferation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (30): 2152634. PMID 16728391. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M603816200.
  3. Alekseev OM, Richardson RT, Alekseev O, O’Rand MG (2009). Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 7: 45. PMC 2686705. PMID 19439102. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-45.
  4. Ellis RJ (July 2006). Molecular chaperones: assisting assembly in addition to folding. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 31 (7): 395 401. PMID 16716593. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.05.001
  5. Eisele Y., Monteiro C., Fearns C., Encalada S., Wiseman R., Powers E., Kelly J. Targeting Protein Aggregation for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases (2015). Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Nov; 14(11): 759780. Published online 2015 Sep 4. doi: 10.1038/nrd4593.
  6. Ellis RJ, Van der Vies SM (1991). Molecular chaperones. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60: 321 47. PMID 1679318. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi.60.070191.001541
  7. Aurangazeb Kabir, Ryo P. Honda, Yuji O. Kamatari, Satoshi Endo, Mayuko Fukuoka, and Kazuo Kuwata. Effects of ligand binding on the stability of aldoketo reductases: Implications for stabilizer or destabilizer chaperones. Protein Sci. 2016 Dec; 25(12): 21322141. Published online 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/pro.3036

Even though you have been trying very hard to lose weight, you’re not losing weight. There may be several reasons why it is not happening. Let’s find out why it is happening to you.

Your body is in survival response

You are under eating and the results of that your body is going into survival response. It is possible that you are eating too less because you want to lose weight and somebody told you that you have to create a big calorie deficit in any which way possible. If you consume too few calories, your body will go into starvation mode and to protect itself it will hold onto the weight.

The reduced calorie intake will create a stress and your body will start producing ahigh amount of cortisol and adrenaline. These are known as stress hormones and they will slow will the calorie burning rate and your metabolism will go down.

You do not have the essential fatty acids

If your body does not have the required amount of essential fatty acids, it may cause your body not to lose weight. They are known as essential fatty acids because they are essential for proper functioning of your body. All the fat is not bad for your body and you need some fats for running your body. Some of the common food sources of essential fatty acids are cold water fish like salmon, herring, mackerel, vegetable sources like amounts, walnuts, flax hemp, dark leafy green vegetables, whole grains and olive oil.

If you like the essential fatty acids, your body may start storing weight and resist weight loss.

You are over exercising

If you are exercising more than necessary, your body will go intoa stress response. Your body will start producing more stress hormones, your metabolism will go down and you will not lose any weight. Some people may be able to exercise more than you preserve it is possible because everyone is different and different bodies will have different capacity for exercise and you cannot push your body to the limit which may be possible for someone else. If you forcefully do that, it will result in stress.

It will depend on what exercise you’re doing and how long you’re doing it. You may need to include restorative movements in between in place of intense exercise. Such restorative movement includes slower exercises which may include yoga, walking, swimming or tai chi.

Your body doesn’t need to lose weight

In some cases, it is seen that even though you may feel you are overweight, your body actually does not need to lose weight. Many times people decide that they need to lose weight depending on some sets standard set by other people and not set by experts. If your body has found its natural weight you may not losing more weight after that. In that case, this is an opportunity for you to take a look whether you really need to lose weight or not. Your body is a miraculous thing and you need to understand it first before you decide you need to shed more weight.

Gut micro biom imbalance

It is possible that your gut micro biom is in an imbalanced state. A healthy diet is very important for your body so that it can function at the optimum level. A healthy diet is important for your immune system and also has an important role to play in your weight.

If necessary, probiotics may help you to restore the balance in your gut.

References

1. Rapid Fat Loss Framework 10 Day Diet
2. Finding a Balance
3. Balance the food you eat with physical activity — maintain or improve your weight

Molecular chaperones are a class of molecules involved in protein folding, which plays a key role in protein homeostasis in the cells of all organisms. They increase the stability of the native conformation in proteins and prevent abnormal aggregate formation (1). For this reason, pharmacological chaperones are considered to be very efficient therapeutic agents for treating various conformational diseases; encouraging scientists to focus on understanding this complex universe.

Why are Chaperones So Important?

Proteins require a 3D macromolecular structure in order to carry out their normal biological functions. The processes of covalent folding or unfolding and assembly require the assistance of specific proteins called chaperones. A chaperone is a ligand that assists in the assembly of nucleosomes from folded histones and DNA, especially in the nucleus (2,3) where they are involved in the
construction of folded subunits into oligomeric structures (4).

Chaperones also prevent newly synthesized polypeptide chains from aggregating into nonfunctional structures (5). Some are very specific and convey structural information onto proteins allowing them to achieve a functional steric shape. Protein aggregation is known to be the cause of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease, and chaperones are an important part of preventing these diseases (5).

Additionally, chaperones can function as heat shock proteins. This expression can occur in response to elevated temperatures or other cellular stresses (6) that can cause protein misfolding, therefore, they prevent and correct consequent cell damage derived from the loss ofprotein stability.Hsp70 and Hsp90, are the main families of chaperones induced in response to cellular stress, but other families such as Hsp100, Hsp60, Hsp40, and Hsp27 do exist as well.

Still other chaperones are important for transport across membranes, which shows that they are relevant actors in protein degradation. Chaperones can also work as foldases and support protein folding in an ATP-dependent manner or operate as holdases and bind folding intermediates to prevent their aggregation.

Destabilizer Chaperones

Recent studies have provided new insights into the world of chaperones and the affinity that these macromolecules have for unstructured and structured protein chains. Furthermore, these new findings have proven the existence of destabilizer chaperones, which are compounds that destabilize the native conformation upon binding to the non-native state of a protein. It has also been discovered that coenzymes play an active and associated role in this process; for example, an experiment on the stability of aldoketo reductases concluded that when coenzyme NADP+ is absent, inhibitors such as isolithocholic acid stabilize the aldoketo reductase AKR1A1 upon binding, but
destabilize AKR1B10 (7). In contrast, in the presence of NADP+, they destabilize AKR1A1 and stabilize AKR1B10. This proves that many intermediaries are involved in protein stability and for that reason, many pathways have not yet been fully described despite the various approaches that have been applied.

Pharmacological Chaperones

It is not surprising that many treatments nowadays are employing pharmacological chaperones to treat diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson, Alzheimer and Fabry. However, the road is long and much more research needs to be done to fully understand misfolding and misrouting in addition to the role of chaperones and co-chaperones and how they are recruited to specific substrates to prevent or correct anomalies that are caused by diseases and aging.

1. Requena J., Montalvo A., Fraga J. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 301326. Published online 2015 Jun 18. doi: 10.1155/2015/301326

2. Richardson RT; Alekseev OM; Grossman G; et al. (July 2006). Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein (NASP), a Linker Histone Chaperone That is Required for Cell Proliferation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (30): 2152634. PMID 16728391. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M603816200.

3. Alekseev OM, Richardson RT, Alekseev O, O’Rand MG (2009). Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 7: 45. PMC 2686705. PMID 19439102. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-45.

4. Ellis RJ (July 2006). Molecular chaperones: assisting assembly in addition to folding. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 31 (7): 395 401. PMID 16716593. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.05.001

5. Eisele Y., Monteiro C., Fearns C., Encalada S., Wiseman R., Powers E., Kelly J. Targeting Protein Aggregation for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases (2015). Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Nov; 14(11): 759780. Published online 2015 Sep 4. doi: 10.1038/nrd4593.

6. Ellis RJ, Van der Vies SM (1991). Molecular chaperones. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60: 321 47. PMID 1679318. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi.60.070191.001541

7. Aurangazeb Kabir, Ryo P. Honda, Yuji O. Kamatari, Satoshi Endo, Mayuko Fukuoka, and Kazuo Kuwata. Effects of ligand binding on the stability of aldoketo reductases: Implications for stabilizer or destabilizer chaperones. Protein Sci. 2016 Dec; 25(12): 21322141. Published online 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/pro.3036