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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

Global Warming Limit Could Avert Many Cases of Dengue FeverRestricting global warming to 1.5 C would prevent around 3.3 million instances of Dengue Fever every year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone.

This is as per another investigation from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Another report published within the Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) say that restricting warming as indicated by the UN Paris Agreement would likewise end dengue spread to regions where its rate is presently low.

Global Warming Limit and Dengue

An unnatural warming increase of 3.7C would prompt as much as 7.5 million further cases for each year in this century.

Dengue fever is an infectious disease which is caused by an infection that is spreading through mosquitoes, with signs including fever, fever, muscle pain, headache and joint pain.

It’s endemic to more than one hundred nations, and involves around 390 million individuals globally every year, with an expected 54 million cases in Latin America, the United States and the Caribbean.

Since the mosquitoes that transmit the infection flourish in warm and moist conditions, it’s seen in territories with these atmosphere conditions. There is no cure or vaccine for dengue and it is even deadly.

The specialists remarked that there might be a developing snag about the potential effects of environmental change on human health.

While it is perceived that constraining warming to 1.5C would have benefits for human wellbeing, the extent of the benefits stays obscure.

Decreasing Global Warming

As told by them, this is the essential investigation to show that decreased rates in warming from 2C to 1.5C could have numerous benefits.

The Paris Agreement expects to keep up world-average temperature below 2C and to seek endeavors to confine it to 1.5 C above preindustrial levels.

The group examined medicinal and lab-confirmed dengue cases in Latin America and utilized models to predict the impacts of warming under exceptional atmosphere situations.

They have found that constraining global warming to 2C would prevent dengue cases by up to 2.8 million cases for each year toward the end of the century contrasted with the present, in which the worldwide temperature ascends by 3.7C.

Decreasing global warming further to 1.5C produces an extra drop in instances of up to half a million every year.

Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, northern Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil had the most increments in dengue cases.

Brazil would profit the most from constraining global warming to 1.5C with up to half a million cases prevented every year by the 2050s and 1.4 million prevented cases for every year by 2100.

The team additionally determined that limiting global warming would additionally restrict the increase in the disease cases closer to areas where incidence is currently low like Paraguay and northern Argentina.

 

Insomnia May Be a Long-term Side Effect of Stroke, Study FindsStroke patients encounter supported issues with sleep deprivation presumably diminishing their capability to relearn key capacities and putting them at a higher risk for depression, another study in a journal finds.

In the primary investigation of its kind, analysts from the University of Surrey, University of Freiburg, Germany, and the University of Bern, Switzerland, did extensive sleep laboratory testing to look at the brain signs of subjects in the persistent state (no less than a year after stroke) and the present population.

Difficulties in sleep in people who had a stroke have long been reported, however little is known with regards to the brain indicators underlying bad sleep.

It is additionally unclear how individuals sleep inadequately in the night, subsequently prompting drowsiness and tiredness in the day.

Insomnia Study

Utilizing a polysomnogram test, which surveys the brains’ sleeping patterns for more than two nights, scientists have observed that it took stroke sufferers longer to sleep and that they had poorer sleep effectivity, which is the proportion of time invested in sleeping contrasted with the time spent in bed, than the individuals who did not have a stroke.

The sleep latency test also demonstrated that stroke patients will probably rest or sleep in the day to replaceduring the evening.

They had been more prone to mistakes in testing than their partners, developing their possibility of failures.

Significantly, scientists established that despite the fact that sleep effectivity is diminished in patients, total sleep between the groups are similar, recommending that diseases in the brain that affect sleep wake control will not cause insomnia.

On the other hand, specialists feel that sleep issues experienced by stroke patients are because of numerous reasons, for example, better psychological pressures, anger and discomfort and also diminished levels of physical activity.

Stroke and Insomnia

According to the researchers, people who have suffered stroke have difficulties with their sleep which is prone to affect their quality of life.

The estimation of sleep in supporting the recovery of sufferers must not be belittled in keeping up physical and mental health.

They added further that sleep will not be considered for stroke rehabilitation, a limitation that will probably be revisited in time.

Bridling the intensity of good sleep will lead to good quality of life and personal satisfaction.

When you are using traditional ab training methods and techniques, you are taking some big risks. It is a very dangerous abs mistakes that you make. It's not your fault because this is how traditional abs training works. You want to create six-pack abs or want to have awesome abs and that is why you are trying different techniques and methods. But you need to know more about the risks you are taking so that you can be careful about them and prevent any possible problem.

Know about these three unnecessary risks of traditional abs training so that you can prevent them.

Abs training risk 1: accelerated ageing

If you are performing lots of crunchers and other faulty abs training methods, it will show up in the visible sign of your hunch. This is a condition which is evident in many people who train hard for great abs. It is even seen in case of people who are fit and have a six-pack. It is known as kyphosis. If you engage in poor abs training, it will cause overactive upper abdominals which will pull the upper body forward. As a result of that it will create a stooped posture which will increase stress on your low back. Your abs will be unbalanced and as a result of that will actually pull your breast bone to your big bone and compress your internal organs. So the abdominal organs in your body will become stuck. They will not be able to function properly as they should if there is no disturbance. That will cause accelerated disease and ageing.

Abs training risk 2: bulging pot belly and back pain

There is another visible effect of unbalanced core strength. It is a pot belly. If you train your abs in the wrong way, it will make you look fatter and there will be no point in training so hard to create six-pack abs. This happens because when you train your abs the wrong way, it will over tighten the hip flexors. The psoas major, which is one of the hip flexors starts on the discs of the lower back and inserts on the top of your thigh bone. Wrong abs training will shorten and tighten your hip flexors and will pull your pelvis forward and down. You will have a sagging belly and as a result of that you will look 5 to 10 lbs heavier than you are. The distorted pelvis resulting from the wrong exercises will also cause serious back problem and pain.

Abs training risk 3: serious disc damage

If you are doing the wrong exercises and doing them in the wrong way, abs training can cause serious disc damage. Most of the abs exercises available today force your spine into extreme flexing and it can increase intra-discal pressure. If the pressure is too much, it can cause fluid inside your disc go out. In such cases, problems like disc protrusion or disc hernias may happen. Treatment of such problems will take months and the treatments are painful. You probably won't like to have such type of injuries and undergo such treatment options.

There are right abs training available which can be done in the right way without any of the risks involved to your body.

References

1. Specforce Abs For Men And Women
2. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat
3. Abdominal muscles

Global Pandemics May Be Due to Microorganism CharacteristicsInfectious disease preparedness concentrates predominantly on microorganisms that are used in biological warfare, political environments, and present outbreaks.

This neglects to represent the more serious microorganisms which are not generally known, as per students from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, which were noted in their report of the characteristics of microorganisms with high pandemic capacities.

The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens

This report, “The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens,” launches a system for choosing common microorganisms that may create a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR) and makes procedures for enhancing GCBR readiness.

GCBRs occur when biological agents would suddenly lead to a sudden, general catastrophe that is beyond the powers of governments and private companies to manage.

Not much data about GCBR agents exist, leaving the community to rely on past experiences to guide their preparedness goals.

According to the researchers, health security preparedness desires to be adaptable to new threats and should not be based entirely on historical reports.

A good strategy to this situation will, eventually, help defend against a GCBR event.

To define the discoveries and recommendations of their report, they looked into published writing and surveys on rising infectious disease qualities, the pathogenic nature of microorganisms, and other related points.

They talked with more than 120 specialists from the scholarly community, industry, and government and met a gathering with these authorities to examine about starting assessment of the expertise the staff had accumulated.

The first finding offered within this report outlines the usual traits of a GCBR-level pandemic pathogen.

Its method of transmission, the team has concluded, will be respiratory. It’ll be infectious amid the incubation period, preceding the development of symptoms, or when infected people give slight signs.

Eventually, it will want distinct host factors such as immunocompromise, and further intrinsic microbial pathogenicity traits that can enhance disease spread and illness.

The report additionally clarifies the pandemic capability of different microorganisms, noticing that RNA viruses are the biggest risk.

Strategies

The team recommends the following strategies:

Readiness against GCBR dangers ought to have a focus on approach with some adaptability.

Old pathogen strategies should not be permanent ideas that stultify considerations on pandemic pathogens.

Improving surveillance of human infections from respiratory-borne RNA viruses should be a greater priority.

A higher accentuation on setting up a particular pipeline of numerous antiviral agents for RNA respiratory infections – both broad spectrum and specific – would include versatility against known GCBR agents.influenza vaccine

Vaccines towards RNA respiratory viruses, including a universal influenza vaccine, should be of priority.

A research agenda for upgrading the treatment of respiratory-spread RNA virus infections must be financed by pharmaceutical associations and medical device firms and sought after by medical centers.

Specific assessment is warranted for respiratory-borne RNA virus studies that could develop pandemic risks.

Pursuing special diagnoses of infectious diseases globally should be routine.

 

What an erection problem?

When you become sexually aroused, hormones, nerves, muscles and blood vessels work together to create an erection. Nerve signals are sent from the brain to the penis and as a result of that blood flows to the muscles of penis. When the blood fills the penis and erection is achieved. After the erection the blood vessels to the penis close off so that the erection can be maintained.

This is the normal situation what should happen, but in case of an erection problem this will not happen. At some point in life many people may have difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection. It erection problems happen when you're not able to achieve and maintain an erection form enough to have sexual intercourse. For most men this problem may or, occasionally and it is not a very serious issue. But if this is a frequent happening that may mean that you have an erection problem and you need some help.

Erection problems are also known as erectile dysfunction, importance and sexual dysfunction.

Common causes

The causes of erection problems can be physical, psychological or a combination of the both.

Physical causes of erection problems are generally seen in case of older men. Such problems generally happen because of different diseases and disorders that affect the nerves and blood vessels which are necessary for erection.

Some of the common physical causes of erectile problems are-

  • heart disease
  • hardening of the arteries
  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • high cholesterol
  • Parkinson's disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Peyronie's disease
  • certain medications, including diuretics, beta blockers, muscle relaxers, or antidepressants
  • alcoholism or substance abuse
  • long-term tobacco use
  • trauma or injury to the spinal cord or genital region
  • congenital genitalia problems
  • liver or kidney disease
  • treatment for prostate problems

There are some psychological causes of erection problems. These causes can affect men of any age. Some of the most common psychological causes of erection problems are-

  • worry over not being able to achieve or maintain an erection
  • prolonged emotional distress related to economic, professional, or social issues
  • relationship conflicts
  • depression

Erection problems in young men

Some young men also suffer from erection problems. Men who are 20 to 30 may also experience such problems. The present data shows that the number of such problem in young men are increasing. About 20% to 30% of men ages 17 to 40 experience problem in erection. In some cases the problem is moderate but in some other cases it can be severe. According to scientific studies done on such cases, erection problems in young men happen mostly because of their lifestyle and psychological reasons rather than a physical reasons. Young men who smoke, drink and do drugs are more likely to suffer from erection problems than older men. Some other young men suffer from erection problem because of anxiety.

Diagnosis of erection problems

Diagnosis of erection problems is very important so as to know and find the cause of erection problems. Some of the taste which are done for such diagnoses include-

  • complete blood count (CBC)- this is a set of blood tests that counts the low red blood cell cells in your blood
  • hormone profile-this test is necessary for finding out the levels of sex hormones (testosterone and prolactin)
  • nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)- this is a test for finding out the function of your erection during sleep
  • duplex ultrasound- this test takes picture of the body's tissues using high-frequency sound waves
  • urinalysis- it is a test for measuring protein and testosterone levels in the urine

References

1. Hard On Demand Erection
2. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
3. Erectile Dysfunction

Addiction is a disease. This means various factors contribute to addiction which is contrary to what many people think.

Addiction doesn't arise from a single factor, rather, it's a combination of risk factors which accelerate addiction. These risk factors include biological factors, drug administration and type, and the surrounding environment.

Whichever the factors leading to addiction, the best way to deal with it is by checking into rehab facilities. You can check drug rehab in NJ, but before then, take an in-depth look at how these risk factors cause addiction.

Biological Factors

Co-occurring mental conditions, DNA and genetic predisposition can increase the chances of addiction. Up to 50 percent of drug addictions rely on genes inherited from previous generations. In fact, a child with addicted parents is 8 times likely to suffer from addiction later in their life.

Mental conditions can also lead to addiction. Some of these mental conditions include post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and attention/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals might fall into the temptation to buy over-the-counter drugs in a bid to medicate themselves.

Gender is another biological factor which can increase the chances of addiction. Some studies show that men are at a higher risk of suffering from addiction than women.

Frequent drug use can change how the brain interprets pleasure. This happens after the substance makes physical changes to the nerve cells thus interfering with the communication system. These may not reverse even after substance withdrawal and can be permanent.

The Surrounding Environment

The surrounding environment plays a major role in addiction. These include peer groups and family beliefs which can cause substance use, which will lead to addiction.

It all starts at home. Studies show that children from neglectful and abusive homes tend to fall into addiction later in life. Alcohol and drug abuse become their sole way of substituting their unhappiness and the void created at home.

In addition, if the children have easy access to alcohol or drugs, they can fall into the temptation of using them which may lead to addiction.

On top of home issues, age plays a massive role in addiction. Some studies indicate that early exposure to drugs can cause severe addiction. This is because the brain is still young and developing. Therefore, it'll get used to the substances making it difficult to function normally without the drug.

Peer pressure poses a major danger to adolescents since they are still naïve and accept any suggestion. The pressure for social acceptance and social likes among peers is one of the reasons why many teenagers turn to drugs. The fear of missing out while trying to fit can lead to addiction.

Stress will lead to substance abuse if not checked. Life presents numerous challenges. Some might seem impossible to overcome and with increasing pressure from various sectors, many people turn to alcohol and drug abuse in a bid to escape from reality. As a result, this habit turns into an addiction.

Drug Administration and Type

The type of drug you take and how it's administration can lead to addiction. For example, heroin or cocaine are highly potent and will cause severe addiction compared to other drugs such as marijuana.

How you use the drug may increase the chances of developing an addiction. Oral drug ingestion tends to be slower compared to smoking or injecting a drug. While the last two methods tend to cause a greater high, the feeling doesn't last as long.

While people living around these factors have a higher chance of falling into addiction, it's not 100 percent guarantee that they will. These risk factors show a likelihood. Anyone can develop an addiction problem since we're different.

In addition, the severity of the addiction will vary from one person to another.