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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

Complementary Reading

Even though you have been trying very hard to lose weight, you’re not losing weight. There may be several reasons why it is not happening. Let’s find out why it is happening to you.

Your body is in survival response

You are under eating and the results of that your body is going into survival response. It is possible that you are eating too less because you want to lose weight and somebody told you that you have to create a big calorie deficit in any which way possible. If you consume too few calories, your body will go into starvation mode and to protect itself it will hold onto the weight.

The reduced calorie intake will create a stress and your body will start producing a high amount of cortisol and adrenaline. These are known as stress hormones and they will slow will the calorie burning rate and your metabolism will go down.

You do not have the essential fatty acids

If your body does not have the required amount of essential fatty acids, it may cause your body not to lose weight. They are known as essential fatty acids because they are essential for proper functioning of your body. All the fat is not bad for your body and you need some fats for running your body. Some of the common food sources of essential fatty acids are cold water fish like salmon, herring, mackerel, vegetable sources like amounts, walnuts, flax hemp, dark leafy green vegetables, whole grains and olive oil.

If you like the essential fatty acids, your body may start storing weight and resist weight loss.

You are over exercising

If you are exercising more than necessary, your body will go into a stress response. Your body will start producing more stress hormones, your metabolism will go down and you will not lose any weight. Some people may be able to exercise more than you preserve it is possible because everyone is different and different bodies will have different capacity for exercise and you cannot push your body to the limit which may be possible for someone else. If you forcefully do that, it will result in stress.

It will depend on what exercise you’re doing and how long you’re doing it. You may need to include restorative movements in between in place of intense exercise. Such restorative movement includes slower exercises which may include yoga, walking, swimming or tai chi.

Your body doesn’t need to lose weight

In some cases, it is seen that even though you may feel you are overweight, your body actually does not need to lose weight. Many times people decide that they need to lose weight depending on some sets standard set by other people and not set by experts. If your body has found its natural weight you may not losing more weight after that. In that case, this is an opportunity for you to take a look whether you really need to lose weight or not. Your body is a miraculous thing and you need to understand it first before you decide you need to shed more weight.

Gut micro biom imbalance

It is possible that your gut micro biom is in an imbalanced state. A healthy diet is very important for your body so that it can function at the optimum level. A healthy diet is important for your immune system and also has an important role to play in your weight.

If necessary, probiotics may help you to restore the balance in your gut.

References

1. Rapid Fat Loss Framework 10 Day Diet
2. Finding a Balance
3. Balance the food you eat with physical activity — maintain or improve your weight

Molecular chaperones are a class of molecules involved in protein folding, which plays a key role in protein homeostasis in the cells of all organisms. They increase the stability of the native conformation in proteins and prevent abnormal aggregate formation (1). For this reason, pharmacological chaperones are considered to be very efficient therapeutic agents for treating various conformational diseases; encouraging scientists to focus on understanding this complex universe.

Why are Chaperones So Important?

Proteins require a 3D macromolecular structure in order to carry out their normal biological functions. The processes of covalent folding or unfolding and assembly require the assistance of specific proteins called chaperones. A chaperone is a ligand that assists in the assembly of nucleosomes from folded histones and DNA, especially in the nucleus (2,3) where they are involved in the
construction of folded subunits into oligomeric structures (4).

Chaperones also prevent newly synthesized polypeptide chains from aggregating into nonfunctional structures (5). Some are very specific and convey structural information onto proteins allowing them to achieve a functional steric shape. Protein aggregation is known to be the cause of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease, and chaperones are an important part of preventing these diseases (5).

Additionally, chaperones can function as heat shock proteins.  This expression can occur in response to elevated temperatures or other cellular stresses (6) that can cause protein misfolding, therefore, they prevent and correct consequent cell damage derived from the loss of protein stability. Hsp70 and Hsp90, are the main families of chaperones induced in response to cellular stress, but other families such as Hsp100, Hsp60, Hsp40, and Hsp27 do exist as well.

Still other chaperones are important for transport across membranes, which shows that they are relevant actors in protein degradation. Chaperones can also work as foldases and support protein folding in an ATP-dependent manner or operate as holdases and bind folding intermediates to prevent their aggregation.

Destabilizer Chaperones

Recent studies have provided new insights into the world of chaperones and the affinity that these macromolecules have for unstructured and structured protein chains. Furthermore, these new findings have proven the existence of destabilizer chaperones, which are compounds that destabilize the native conformation upon binding to the non-native state of a protein. It has also been discovered that coenzymes play an active and associated role in this process; for example, an experiment on the stability of aldo“keto reductases concluded that when coenzyme NADP+ is absent, inhibitors such as isolithocholic acid stabilize the aldo“keto reductase AKR1A1 upon binding, but
destabilize AKR1B10 (7). In contrast, in the presence of NADP+, they destabilize AKR1A1 and stabilize AKR1B10. This proves that many intermediaries are involved in protein stability and for that reason, many pathways have not yet been fully described despite the various approaches that have been applied.

Pharmacological Chaperones

It is not surprising that many treatments nowadays are employing pharmacological chaperones to treat diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson, Alzheimer and Fabry. However, the road is long and much more research needs to be done to fully understand misfolding and misrouting in addition to the role of chaperones and co-chaperones and how they are recruited to specific substrates to prevent or correct anomalies that are caused by diseases and aging.

1. Requena J., Montalvo A., Fraga J. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015: 301326. Published online 2015 Jun 18. doi:  10.1155/2015/301326

2. Richardson RT; Alekseev OM; Grossman G; et al. (July 2006). Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein (NASP), a Linker Histone Chaperone That is Required for Cell Proliferation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (30): 21526“34. PMID 16728391. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M603816200.

3. Alekseev OM, Richardson RT, Alekseev O, O’Rand MG (2009). Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 7: 45. PMC 2686705. PMID 19439102. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-45.

4. Ellis RJ (July 2006). Molecular chaperones: assisting assembly in addition to folding. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 31 (7): 395 401. PMID 16716593. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.05.001

5. Eisele Y., Monteiro C., Fearns C., Encalada S., Wiseman R., Powers E., Kelly J. Targeting Protein Aggregation for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases (2015). Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Nov; 14(11): 759“780. Published online 2015 Sep 4. doi:  10.1038/nrd4593.

6. Ellis RJ, Van der Vies SM (1991). Molecular chaperones. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60: 321 47. PMID 1679318. doi: 10.1146/annurev.bi.60.070191.001541

7. Aurangazeb Kabir, Ryo P. Honda, Yuji O. Kamatari, Satoshi Endo, Mayuko Fukuoka,  and Kazuo Kuwata. Effects of ligand binding on the stability of aldo“keto reductases: Implications for stabilizer or destabilizer chaperones. Protein Sci. 2016 Dec; 25(12): 2132“2141. Published online 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/pro.3036

Nutrition is a vital element of surf raining because you need fitness and healthy body for surf training. You stay long in the water and to stay injury free, and to maintain your energy levels, you will need to focus on the nutrition part. A balanced diet is very important for surfers and you will have two find the right balance diet for you. If you want to get enough fuel for the next four hours surf session, you will have to understand and take a close look at your diet.

Eat real whole foods

Eating real whole foods will help you to get more energy, stay active, and stay fit for the staff sport of surfing. And surf training is no different. You will need fruits, vegetables, quality proteins and fats in your diet. You will need to eliminate all processed foods and excessive sugar from the existing diet.

Stay hydrated

Is very important for you to stay hydrated during your surfing training. You need a rehydrating drink to ensure that you are not dehydrated in anyway. However, do not include soda, sports drinks and artificially flavoured liquids in this drink list. They are not good for your body and they will not help you to stay healthy. You can simply squeeze a lemon lime or orange into clean water and then add a pinch of salt and that will help you more to rehydrate yourself in comparison to the drinks available in the market. Drink clean water and that’ll be good for you because it does not add any extra calories and on the other hand will keep you properly hydrated.

Eat breakfast

Before you go for surf raining or for surfing, you should eat your something. If you do not feel comfortable with a full stomach, you can still have something before going for surfing. Eating a piece of fruit or some nuts or a small meal is very important. The food will provide you with the necessary fuel to continue your training and surfing. On flat surfing days, he can eat a very good quality breakfast that contains protein, fruit, vegetables and healthy fats.

Learn cooking

Learning cooking will help you in different ways. First of all, you will eat what you want to eat. It’ll be easier for you to add the elements which are very important for you.

Eat well-balanced meals

You will need to eat well-balanced meals throughout the day. A well-balanced meal will include proteins, carbohydrates and good fats in the required proportion. Good fats are available in vegetable oils and other such good sources.

At quality fats

First of all, reduce your consumption of processed vegetable oils. Instead, you can eat quality fats. Some good sources of quality fats include organic olive oils, coconut oils, avocados, grass fed butter and ghee. For a better working nervous system, you will need quality saturated fat. Such a fat will also help you and your immune system function, hormone pathways and overall health.

Buy local and organic

Whenever you are buying something for your meals, try to buy local, fresh and organic. Organic vegetables, meats and other products are very important for your better health. When you buy them locally, you are getting them fresh and possibly organic. It will also help you to avoid any processed foods and preservatives in such foods which are not at all good for your healthy body. Eating healthier, pesticide free vegetables will definitely help you by providing you with the necessary nutrients, vitamins and other important elements.

References

3

We sometimes make some mistakes which may result in insomnia. But if you know about those mistakes, it will be possible for you to eliminate the possibility of making those mistakes. So, let’s find out what all the mistakes that you need to avoid to avoid or get rid of insomnia.

I have to sleep

After climbing into bed you keep thinking in your mind “I have to sleep, I have to sleep.” If this is the case with fewer like many other people, then probably this simple thought is causing insomnia in your case. If you keep thinking ”I have so much to do and I have to sleep now, otherwise I will not be able to tackle the day tomorrow,” you will unfortunately lay awake for hours.

It is important for your brain to be able to ”switch off” and relax and that part should happen at least two hours before you go to bed. So, it means you cannot completely focus your attention on something which can raise your stress levels because that will keep you from being able to relax and in that case you will not be able to sleep. Do not do anything that will increase your anxiety just before bed. Reading a book, watching something or having fun in it any other way will help you to sleep better.

Erratic schedules

If you have erratic sleep schedules, it is going to cause insomnia. Your body likes routine and habits because they helped your body with the basic needs such as consumption of food and sleep cycles. It is always better to go to bed at the same time every night. Sticking to a pattern and the stable schedule will definitely help you to sleep better and peacefully. If you can go to sleep by 10:30 to 11 pm every day, it will help you to sleep easily, sleep better and keep away insomnia.

Your dinner

What you ate in the dinner will also decide how good your sleep is. If you have eaten something which will take too long to get digested, then probably you will have sleep problems. Your dinner should be lighter, so that your stomach can easily digest them. Your dinner should have protein but that should be easy to digests and fat-free. Soups, fish, steamed vegetables are some of the good choices for your dinner diet. If possible, try to avoid precooked meals for your dinner. Even though they are easy to prepare, they generally contain high amounts of preservatives and refined ingredients, which are not only bad for your health but can also result in insomnia. So, to avoid insomnia, avoid those precooked meals.

Electronic devices

Today, electronic devices play a very important role in our lives. We cannot live without them. But these devices are one of the major reasons of insomnia in many people. There are so many things that you need to do using your mobile phone, tablet or other electronic devices. But the problem is that such electronic device screens can overstimulate your brain with electromagnetic waves and if that happens, you will not be able to sleep. These devices will cause more trouble than your TV because there is a good distance from your TV while you are watching and severe brain is not as much stimulated as a is when other electronic devices are used. It is always better to start reading a book and that will help you to sleep faster and better and keep you away from insomnia.

References

1. Sleeptracks Sleep Optimization Program
2. Insomnia – overview
3. Negative Impacts of Shiftwork and Long Work Hours

If you want to build muscles and at the same time want to lose fat, metabolic resistance training can help you to do that. MRT has many benefits and it can help you tremendously in transforming your body. It is a term that covers different combinations of intense, efficient cardiovascular and muscular training. There may be supersets, circuits, low rest, speed and compound movements. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises are included in it.

MRT basics

Crunch time

First, MRT focuses on packing more exercises into less than. You can achieve that by using high repetitions (15-20 wraps per set) and reducing the rest time between sets. It is very important to train at maximal or near maximum levels in case of efforts, so that you can optimise your results from the work schedule. It may be necessary to take your most of the sets to muscular failure so that you can get the maximum benefit out of the workouts each and every day.

More muscles, more energy

MRT is a total body routine and in each session you will work on major muscles. It is very important to get more muscles worked during your workout because it will increase your metabolic cost. That is why multi-joint exercises are always included in such a workout regime. You will need to involve more muscles and as a result of that you will gain more energy. Always go for compound movements like squats, presses and rows. In case of arms and calves, you can perform single joint movements. Exercising three days a week should be good enough for you because that will give you enough time for adequate recuperation.

MRT routines

If you go for the tried and true MRT strategies, it will help you to remove the stubborn fat from your body and increase your energy. It will be advisable for you to stick to one strategy for certain period of time to see the maximum results. Then you can change the strategy and perform the new strategy for sometime. Do not over train yourself because that is also not good for you. You can have an unloading cycle in between two strategies which may run for one week. During this time, you need to reduce the efforts, which means you are not utilizing all the energy and you are not challenging your muscles to the maximum level possible. It is also important for you to understand that there is a general rule pertaining to MRT routines. It says that you need to limit metabolic training cycles to a maximum of eight weeks. If you go beyond that, it is possible that you will compromise your muscular gains and you don’t want to do that.

Speedy too slowly

When you are performing repetitions during your sets, you should do that at a moderately fast tempo. Even though many people may tell you that super slow training is very important for increasing metabolic effects, the studies done on that topic show otherwise. When you are performing concentric lifts, you should perform them as explosively as possible but do not forget to keep your technique clean.

During the eccentric reps, when you lower the weight, it should be performed slower. When you do that, your muscles will resist reputational pool and performing eccentric exercise in this way will have a significant effect on MRT. If you do not lower the weights with control, you will not get the desired results.

References

1. Omega Body Blueprint
2. The Role of Exercise and Physical Activity in Weight Loss and Maintenance
3. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

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Are you looking for foodstuff that will tickle your taste buds and keep you fit and healthy at the same time? If yes, then you should subscribe to the monthly healthy subscription boxes as they will meet all these needs. Healthy subscription boxes make it easy for you to access healthy delicious foodstuff at all times. These gift boxes are rounded up with food and drinks made of ingredients that are good for your health. Therefore, making healthy eating a breeze. The following are some of the food boxes that you could subscribe to and have them delivered to you. All of these subscription boxes offer great coupons for first time subscribers, for the most up to date offers we recommend you visit https://couponcause.com before you subscription.

 

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