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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

 

In the US alone, there is a distinct aging population, in which 13% of residents are now over the age of 65. Currently, there are more individuals living longer than previous generations, but what is the reason for that? According to specialists, there are several explanations as to why baby boomers are living longer, but it is simply all down to the way they are managing their health.

If you are looking to keep yourself fit and well in the later stage of your life, here are a few useful tips to follow, to improve your chances of going about your daily life without health concerns:

  • Quit smoking

    As you are probably already aware, smoking is one of the top 10 causes of premature death in the world. According to research, it is set to become one of the biggest killers over the next 20 years, causing illnesses such as cancer, stroke, heart failure, and COPD. Living with COPD can be debilitating and may prevent sufferers from continuing with the activities they enjoy.

    Symptoms of the disease may include wheezing and breathlessness as a result of long-term lung damage; most often caused by cigarette smoke. If you believe you are suffering from the condition, the first step would be to quit smoking. You don’t have to suffer from the symptoms of COPD if you research the best treatment methods. Inogen’s intelligent technology delivery has been clinically proven to provide essential oxygen to patients with utmost efficiency via conserver technology.


  • Get physical

    For the older generation, in particular, staying active is of high importance. It can have a significant impact on your strength, stability, and suppleness, which could improve your heart health. A little bit of aerobic exercise on occasion can strengthen the muscles in the chest, back and legs, which should enhance the heart rate and breathing.

    You don’t necessarily have to partake in anything too strenuous though! A brisk walk in the morning or a spot of gardening would be an ideal way of involving physical activity into your daytime routine without having to commit to a specified fitness program. Having said that, joining a local tennis club, for example, would be a great way to socialize and you may even find that some clubs offer discounts for senior citizens.

  • Eat healthily

    As you age, your body needs fewer calories to function. However, you are still in need of vital nutrients. In fact, a healthy diet can have implications for preventing illnesses such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Therefore, being aware of the foods you choose to consume may instantly improve your health.

    When it comes to changing up your diet, opt for foods such as:

    – Colorful fruits and vegetables

    – Whole grains including the likes of oatmeal and brown pasta and rice

    – Eggs, poultry, and seafood

    – Low-fat milk and cheese

  • Maintain a healthy weight 

    As you age, you are bound to notice distinct changes in your body, such as a reduction in muscle mass which is making you appear gaunt, or on the other hand, holding on to extra weight due to burning fewer calories.On the whole, senior citizens are more commonly underweight than overweight as their appetite may be impacted by illness or not eating foods that are rich in nutrients. However, for those who are overweight, extra body fat can cause illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes.

    One way to monitor your weight would be with a BMI calculator to discover the appropriate weight for your height and build. You can then decide whether more diet or exercise changes are needed to keep you in good shape.

     

Sleep Loss Linked to Midnight Snacking, Weight Problems, DiabetesMidnight snacking and junk food cravings may also lead to unhealthy eating behaviors and represent a connection between lack of sleep and weight problems, according to a study from University of Arizona sleep scientists.

The study was conducted through a nationwide survey of 3,105 adults from 23 U.S. metropolitan areas. Subjects had been asked if they usually consumed a midnight snack and whether lack of sleep led them to crave junk meals. Additionally they had been asked about their sleep experience and existing health problems.

About 60 percent of subjects claimed they had midnight snacking and two-thirds stated that sleeplessness led them to crave more junk food.

The researchers discovered that junk food cravings were related with midnight snacking, which is also connected to an increased risk for diabetes. They also found that poor sleep is a foremost predictor of junk food cravings, and that junk food cravings were related to a larger possibility of subjects reporting weight problems, diabetes and different fitness issues.

According to the investigators, laboratory studies endorse that sleep deprivation can lead to junk meal cravings at night, which results in increased unhealthy snacking at nighttime, which then leads to weight gain. This linking between poor sleep, junk food cravings and unhealthy midnight snacking could portray the fact that sleep helps in metabolism control.

Sleep is more recognized as a primary aspect in health, alongside diet, claimed the researchers.  The study indicates how sleep and eating patterns are linked and work collectively to promote health.

UA sleep scientists work as interdisciplinary teams, directing studies and leading clinical trials to regulate how sleep influences memory, mental health, stress, alertness and decision-making, and the way environmental issues have an influence on sleep. Sleep and wakefulness difficulties affect an estimated 15 to 20 % of U.S. adults, according to National Institute of Health.

This research was presented at SLEEP 2018, the 32nd annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep SocietiesLLC (APSS), which is a joint enterprise of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society in Baltimore. The assembly is the world’s most popular discussion board to present and speak about today’s trends in medical sleep medication and sleep and the 24-hour cycle that influences physiology and behavior, referred to as circadian rhythm.

Carrots: Facts and Healthy BenefitsCarrots were some of the vegetables scrutinized in recent studies on foods that are rich in beta-carotene and their relation to bone health. More chiefly, ingesting yellow, orange and green veggies was once assessed to find out if a higher consumption is related to higher bone mass.

Interestingly, members who ate a minimum of one serving per day of yellow, orange or green veggies had healthier bone mass than contributors who ate less than one serving per day.

Furthermore, members who ate lower than one helping per day had bone mass at a level that would put them at risk for bone-associated difficulties.

Carrots are vegetables which are often enjoyed as both uncooked and cooked forms.

While carrots can be treasured in a variety of colors,from whites and yellows to reds and purples, most of them are orange in color. As a least goal for vegetable intake from the yellow or orange types, experts recommend consuming them half a cup per day.

Optimal intake would be one cup per day, along with greens, potatoes, squash, and yellow corn which can contribute to your everyday nutrient requirements.

Health Benefits

Carrots are well-recognized for their rich supply of this antioxidant nutrient that was once named for them: beta-carotene. Nonetheless, these delicious root veggies are the best sources of beta-carotene and other vitamins and minerals.

All varieties of carrots have valuable amounts of antioxidant vitamins and minerals such as vitamin C and beta-carotene.

In many varieties of carrots, beta-carotene is essentially the most abundant antioxidant nutrient, which is responsible for over 95% of all carotenoids in many carrot types.

Different carotenoids that are typically present in carrots comprise of alpha-carotene and lutein. The most common antioxidant nutrients in carrots are as follows:

  • Carotenoids
  • Alpha-carotene
  • Beta-carotene
  • Lutein
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids
  • Caffeic acid
  • Coumaric acid
  • Ferulic acid
  • Anthocyanins
  • Cyanidins
  • Malvidins

In a study from the Netherlands, subjects had been followed for a period of 10 years and their meal plans were examined for fruit and vegetable consumption in four color categories: green, orange or yellow, red or purple, and white.

Among these four-color classes, it was foods with deeper colors of orange and yellow that had been determined to be essentially the most protecting against cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

The capability of carrots to provide cancer-protecting advantages has been an active study on this root vegetable. Of special interest on this field are substances found in the carrot referred to as polyacetylenes.

Carrots have the capability to take their fatty acids and convert them into molecules called polyacetylenes. These polyacetylenes include molecules like falcarinol and falcarindiol. Polyacetylenes furnish carrots with defense from microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, and they have also have proven anti-cancer effects.

There are also some studies which have some that greater carrot consumption may lead to lower glaucoma rates than people with little carrot intake. One phytonutrient in carrots, geranyl acetate, is a substance that is known to give rise to cataract protection.

 

If you have a fatty liver it means that there is excess fat accumulation inside liver cells. It will result in abnormal liver function and will cause many health problems within a short span of time. It is also associated with other health problems like insulin resistance, abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes. It can also cause cirrhosis and liver failure.

To reverse a fatty liver, you need to do the following-

Eat less carbonated

Your diet is also responsible for your fatty liver and so you will need to take proper care of your diet. You need to avoid sugar and foods made of white flour. If you consume more carbohydrate rich foods, they can cause fatty liver and so it is very important for you to reduce the amount of carbohydrate you consume. More carbohydrate is bad because your liver can convert excess carbohydrate into fat. You need to avoid foods like bread, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, potatoes and other food products made of flour.

Change in diet

You will need to add more vegetables, protein and healthy fats to your diet. Raw vegetables and fruits are very good as they are liver healing foods. The raw foods will help you by cleansing and repairing the liver filter. Then the filter will be able to trap and remove excess fat and toxins from the blood stream. You can eat cooked and raw salads so that you can get more vegetables. Fruit is healthy for most people but you should be careful if you also have high blood sugar or insulin resistance. Even then, two servings of fruits per day should be okay for you. Protein is important for you as it will help you to keep the blood sugar levels stable. It will also help you to lose weight from the abdomen and will reduce your hunger and cravings. Do not forget to include protein in each meal. You should get protein from eggs, poultry, seafood, nuts, meat, legumes, dairy products, whey protein powder and seeds. The healthy fats that should be there in your diet include olive oil, flaxseeds, oily fish, coconut oil and raw nuts and seeds.

Eliminate alcohol

Alcohol is bad for you if you are suffering from fatty liver. It is considered as the second biggest cause of fatty liver in people. It can result in inflammation and damage to liver cells and allow infiltration of fat into your liver. It is better to eliminate alcohol totally but if you cannot do that, at least you should limit alcohol consumption to one drink per day.

Take a liver tonic

A liver tonic is something that you can always include in your daily life. A good liver tonic will provide you with vitamins, antioxidants and sulphur rich amino acids. It is necessary for you because it will help you by promoting repair of damaged liver cells besides helping you to burn more fat and detoxification of the liver. Such a liver tonic can be available in powder, capsule or liquid form.

Drink vegetable juice

If you drink raw vegetable juice, it'll help you to improve the health of your liver. Such raw juices will provide you with high levels of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. You can also add a bit of fruits into the juices. Vegetable juice is always better than fruit juice because fruit juice may contain high levels of carbohydrate and calories, which you don't want.

References

1. The Fatty Liver Solution: A Holistic Approach To A Healthier Liver
2. Fatty liver – nonalcoholic
3. Fatty liver

Lower Belly Fat: How to Burn It EffectivelyLower belly fat is something that most of us handle, and a rapid solution to get rid of it would be good. However, there’s no riskless and fast way to reducing lower belly fats. Doing many crunches everyday will not always yield the best results that you want for your abdomen.

Even though there’s no speedy method to burn lower belly fat, both diet and exercise play a central function in weight loss, which is the most effective way to get rid of belly fat. Here are some of the best tips for weight reduction, thereby getting rid of those unsightly fats from our abdomen.

Choose the Right Carbs

You can consume carbs and nonetheless lose belly fat. The varieties of carbs that you eat are what’s important. Processed and white carbs like certain breads, pastas, and baked items are processed rapidly in our bodies as sugar. When there’s an excessive amount of sugar in our bodies, we retain them as fat within the body, particularly in the belly.

Consume Whole Foods

Whole foods are the varieties of food that come from the earth, like fruits, veggies, seeds, nuts, and beans. Consuming whole foods from nature, as an alternative to fast-food found in packages or cans, is, without doubt, one of best things you can do for yourself and your loved ones.

Whole foods are unprocessed and not exposed to chemical substances and preservatives, unlike boxed and processed foods that may be bought at many grocery retailers. Whole foods additionally tend to have a lot of health advantages. Eating whole foods will not only eliminate the undesirable belly fat but will additionally supply your body with the essential vitamins and minerals it desires to function efficiently.

Consume Fiber

Fiber can be observed in several foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Fiber not only helps with urge for food control, but it also stabilizes blood sugar, and improves gastrointestinal health, and feeds good bacteria in our microbiome. Feeding the good microorganisms in our bodies can help as lose weight, while processed meals with little to no dietary value could make us gain weight.

Eat more soluble fiber from oats, barley, peas, carrots, beans, apples, citrus fruits, and psyllium.?Soluble fiber will lower bad cholesterol and get rid of them from your digestive system, to decrease the risk of heart disorder while you also lose belly fat.

Reduce the Sugar

The quantity of sugar we consume in a day is rather baffling, therefore checking labels is important. Sugar will also be lurking from crackers and salsa to bread and drinks. By cutting on our sugar consumption, we have  less sugar in the body that will get saved as fat.

Exercise

Exercise is a good way to lose belly fat, together with eating a healthy diet. Find anything you enjoy doing, whether it’s walking, running, climbing, or yoga. You can additionally try weight coaching, which can support you shed some lower belly fat fast.

Muscular strength means the amount of force muscle can produce with a single maximal effort. It is generally measured during muscular contraction. Your muscular strength will depend on many things but the most important elements are your muscle fivers and the ability of nerves to activate muscle fibres and they will decide how much muscular strength you have.

Muscular strength

Even though it may seem that muscular strength is nothing but how strong you are, that may not be true. It does not mean your weight, how much weight you can lift at the gym, how hard you can punch etc. American Council on Exercise (ACE) describes muscular strength as the maximal force a muscle or muscle group can exert during a contraction. It is measured with a one-rep maximum (1-RM) test.

Muscular strength will also depend on how strong you are and how much strength you have while doing anything. It will depend on muscular endurance and muscular power. Muscular endurance is the ability of your muscles to exert force against resistance during a specific period. Muscular powers is a combination of muscular force and the speed of movement.

Muscle definition and muscular strength

If you to build your muscular strength, you will need to exercise your muscles. Resistance training programs can help you to increase your muscle strength. It is also known as weightlifting or strength training. Even though such training programs can help you to improve your muscular strength, it is not mandatory to use those programs. It does not mean that you must use such a program to increase your muscular strength. Simple bodyweight exercises at home can also help you to build muscle and strength. It means you can increase your muscular strength with the help of bodyweight exercises if you know what to do and how to do it. Strength training helps you to improve your muscular strength by increasing the size of your muscle fibres and improving the ability of your nerves to communicate with the muscles. So as you progress which are resistance training, your muscles will get bigger and they will also be able to perform specific movements with more strength. That means you will have more muscular strength than before and will be able to perform movements which are difficult for you before.

If you go for strength training, after several weeks, you'll notice that your muscles are getting stronger and bigger. At the same time, you will also see greater muscle definition. It means your muscles will become defined and people will be able to see it easily than before. However, only strength training resistance training cannot help you to get muscle definition. It depends on your level of body fat. Even if you are having bigger muscles but at the same time you have higher body fat, your muscle definitions may not be visible to anyone and you will not be able to see sculpted muscle on your body. If you want to improve your muscle definition and muscular strength, along with strength training, you'll also need to combine a healthy diet and that will help you to achieve both muscle size and definition, which will increase your muscular strength.

The benefits

You need to build more muscular strength because it will offer you several benefits. It will help you to build lean muscle mass and will also improve your metabolism. It will help you to lose body fat and extra weight.

References

1. Muscular Strength
2. The effects of manual resistance training on improving muscular strength and endurance
3. Exercise and Physical Fitness