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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

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Phobias may come in different varieties. Some people have the fear of flying, some others fear dogs, and some other may fear other animals or situations or objects. There are so many different types of phobias making so many different people's lives difficult for them. Let's find out how you can get rid of your phobia.

Different ways

Like there are different phobias available for different people, the ways to get rid of phobias are also different. Most of the time you need to confront your phobias to get rid of them. You may need to get exposure to your phobias gradually so that you can learn how to deal with them. Different ways will help you to deal with different types of phobias.

Exposure therapy

Exposure therapy can help you to get rid of phobias. If you're not able to practice the small steps, you can ask for help from a professional. In exposure therapy, you will perform small steps leading to the activities that make you fearful but you will have support from a trained psychiatrist or psychologist. There may be some homework associated with such processes and you may need to go back and complete those homework. You'll also learn about coping strategies and other elements in exposure therapy which will help you to gradually control the phobias and situations causing those phobias.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is another technique of getting rid of your phobias. It is a comprehensive and a more in-depth therapy or sub it focuses on changing your perception and thinking about the phobia you are suffering from. A therapist will help you to go through the process and finding ways to cope with your phobia. There will be coping strategies and you will expose yourself to the phobia gradually with the help of the therapist. Cognitive behavioral therapy will mostly focus on controlling your thoughts and emotions because your thoughts and emotions about the phobia makes it so frightening for you.

Visiting a doctor

Visiting a doctor is another approach that you can take to clear your phobias. It will help you to cause the doctor will be able to cause the situation properly and prescribe the necessary steps need to be taken. A doctor is necessary for the right diagnoses and treatment. Sometimes, people mistake phobias for other anxiety disorders or some underlying psychological problems. That is why, before using anything, it is important to find out what you are suffering from a trained medical professional can help you to find out whether you are really suffering from a phobia.

Medicines

In some cases when you are not able to control your phobias, medicines may be necessary. Doctors may prescribe medicines for phobia symptoms. Beta-blockers are generally prescribed in such cases. They are generally used for reducing performance anxiety or stage fright and such are the symptoms. You may be prescribed with sedatives like Valium which will help you to reduce anxiety. Some other doctors may also prescribe mood enhancing antidepressants. The main focus of medicines to help you function well and to handle day-to-day responsibilities. However, becoming completely dependent on your medicine is not the objective here because medicines will help you to handle your day-to-day responsibilities while you continue to work towards overcoming your phobias.

References

1. Phobia Release Program
2. Phobias
3. Phobias

What is it?

Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs or pockets which are found in an ovary or on its surface. The two ovaries present in a female body are about the size and shape of an almond. Eggs are developed and matured in the ovaries and they are released during the monthly cycle. Ovarian cysts are common in many women. At some point of their life most of them carry them. Even after its presence, the host may not feel any all little discomfort and they are generally harmless. Most of them disappear without any treatment within a few months. However, some of the ovarian cysts that rupture can result in serious problems. Regular pelvic exam can help you to detect such cysts in time. Also knowing about the symptoms of ovarian cysts will help you to find out if you have them.

Symptoms

Most of the ovarian cysts do not show any symptoms. If you have a large ovarian cyst, it can cause the following symptoms-

  • Pelvic pain. You may suffer from and dull or short pain in the lower abdomen on the side where the cysts are present.
  • Fullness or heaviness in the abdomen
  • bloating

You should see a doctor immediately if you suffer from a sudden or severe abdominal or pelvic pain. If you are having pain with fever or vomiting, you should immediately see your doctor. Some women may have cold, clammy skin, rapid breathing, light-headedness or weakness. In that case, you should immediately go and see a doctor.

Causes

Most of the ovarian cysts develop as a result of menstrual cycle. These are known as functional cysts. Other types of cysts are not very common. The ovaries normally grows cyst like structures known as follicles every month. These follicles produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone and release an egg during ovulation. If somehow this follicle keeps growing, it is called as a functional cyst. There are two types of functional cyst present-

Follicular cyst

At the midpoint of the menstrual cycle, an egg bursts out of the follicle and travels to the fallopian tube. If for some reason the follicle does not rupture and release the egg and keeps growing than a follicular cyst may form.

Corpus luteum cyst

After the release of the egg, the follicle starts producing estrogen and progesterone which will help in conception. After the release, the follicle is called as the corpus luteum. If somehow fluid accumulation happens inside the corpus luteum, it can start to grow into a cyst.

As mentioned earlier, functional cysts are generally harmless and they do not cause pain. They often disappear within 2 to 3 menstrual cycles.

Other types of cysts

There may be some other types of cysts which are not related to normal function of the menstrual cycle. These cysts may include the following-

Dermoid cysts

These are known as teratomas. These cysts may contain tissue like hair, skin or teeth because they develop from embryonic cells. The cysts are not cancerous.

Cystadenomas

These type of cysts may develop on the surface of an ovary. They may contain water or a mucous material.

Endometriomas

This type of cyst may develop as a result of the condition where the uterine endometrial cells may grow outside the uterus.

Risk factors

There are several risk factors which may increase the possibility of developing an ovarian cyst. Such factors may include hormonal problems, pregnancy, endometriosis, severe pelvic infection and a previous ovarian cyst.

References

1. Ovarian Cysts Treatment
2. Ovarian Cysts
3. Ovarian cysts

If you have an oily skin, you know how difficult it makes your daily life. Oily skins not only can cause problems for you in front of other people but they can also cause other skin health problems for you.

Face pack to get rid of oily skin

You can use different face packs to get rid of oily skin. Oily skin looks dull and unattractive and to make it look better, you need to take special care of your oily skin. It will need special nourishment and proper care. Oily skin can easily catch dirt from the environment. You need face packs to remove the dirt and also to nourish your oily skin. The metros, aloe Vera, oatmeal, honey and other such products can be used for making face packs which will help you to improve your oily skin and to remove the excess oil you have.

Cleansing

If you have an oily skin, it is very important for you to clean your skin properly every day. If you wash your face with lukewarm water three times a day, it will remove excess oil and will also prevent acne formation. Using cold water on your face will close the pores and maintain the pH balance of the skin.

It is very important for you to find the right cleanser. You need at cleansing product that is not very harsh on your skin. If you use it to harsh product, it will strip away the oils that make your skin look healthy and glowing. Do not use a cleanser more than twice a day. Use a cleanser that contains salicylic acid because it will help you by absorbing oil. You can talk to your dermatologist to find out the right product for yourself. If you are washing your face with a cleanser for the second time, always use a mild cleanser.

Hydrate your skin

Many people who have oily skin they do not use any moisturiser because they feel using any such beauty products will increase the oil content in their face. This is not true. Using a moisturiser can be beneficial for you, especially during the colder months. Even if you have an oily complexion, even after that your skin can be dry and dehydrated. So, do not eliminate the moisturiser from your skin care regime. If you stop using the moisturiser, your skin will become drier and will cause irritation. You can use a lightweight moisturiser that contains hyaluronic acid. You can also use moisturisers that contain lemon peel extract because it has astringent and antibacterial properties. Find a moisturiser which will not clog your pores because clog pores with an oily skin can cause several other problems for your skin. You can also use a moisturiser in the form of an oil free lotion, gel or serum.

Keep your hands away

If you have an oily skin, it is very important for you to keep your hands away from your skin. Having an oily skin will make you more acne prone because the sebum produced by your skin helps in acne breakout. If you have blackheads or blemishes on your skin, you may feel like picking or squeezing them out. However, this is a bad idea. You should not touch your skin because bacteria and other infection causing organisms can reach your skin with the help of your fingers and that may cause skin breakout from infection. You can use a toner instead of using your hands. After you cleanse your skin, use a toner which has antibacterial and oil absorbing properties. It will prevent orderliness and blemishes. The toner will help you by removing excess oil and surface impurities.

References

1. Oily Skin Solution
2. Oily skin
3. Patient experiences with oily skin

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Wouldn’t you give anything to be a baby once more? I know I would. We love children to bits even though they can annoy sometimes. Napping is not something that many babies look forward to. They try their best to remain awake even when their yawns are betraying them.

According to studies, children fight that urge to nap because they do not want to miss out on the fun of being awake. The curiosity of your child makes them fight that sleep during the day for hours. Some end up throwing tantrums and crying for hours from the disturbance of sleep. We will let you know how you can help your baby nap easily.

How much sleep does your baby need?

Experts say that an infant needs at least 20 hours of sleep in a complete day. This includes naps during the day. When your baby is between 6-12 months, they need around 11 hours of sleep. This includes two daytime naps. Toddlers, on the other hand, need at least 10 hours with an afternoon nap. If your toddler is still young, let them have two naps during the daytime.

 

 

 

 

How to help your child nap easily

Reduce your expectations

The frequency of napping in a child changes with age. A baby will nap more times than a toddler. For instance, at 18 months, most babies don’t nap in the morning. You need to understand that your child is growing and the naps will also reduce.

If they stop napping in the morning, you can ensure that the afternoon nap comes a bit early like before lunch. Do not make your baby sleep late in the afternoon since they may have trouble falling asleep early at night.

Maintain consistency

Most children who cry due to refusing to sleep do so because the naps are not consistent. A toddler requires a nap routine for them to feel secure. It should include bedtime, naptime and wake up time. If you make that schedule early for them, they will not find it hard to adjust to it. They will know what to expect at specific hours of the day.

You can also maintain the same napping area for your toddlers. Avoid couches for your toddler’s naptime. If you use a crib for their naptime, they will start associating the crib with sleep. This increases compliance, and they end up falling asleep without problems. A schedule also triggers your baby’s natural clock to nap without feeling pressured.

Do not sleep with your baby

 

A toddler needs their space to learn how to fall asleep without you by their side. Let them sleep without necessarily being nursed or lured to sleep. They will soon start napping naturally without need constant attention.

 

Remain calm, but firm

Do not let your toddler’s tantrums affect you. Always show them composure so that you can remain in control. Don’t beat your child to help them fall asleep, this only annoys them and makes the situation worse. You can soothe your baby after tucking them in but don’t lie next to them. Once you have done the soothing, you can leave the room and allow them to rest.

 

Avoid using pills to help your child rest

It is unfortunate that some women use tablets such as sleeping pills and Xanax to help their children relax. This could cause Xanax addiction which is not easy to break. Such pills could have severe side effects on your child.  You should not use anything to force your child to rest. If they don’t do it naturally, they would better be sleep deprived than addicted to such pills.

Minimize their sugar intake

When your child is young, lots of carbohydrates and sugar can interfere with their sleeping patterns. Replace carbohydrates with fruits and vegetables that have nutritional benefits to their overall health. Do not give your child lots of caffeine since such stimulants trigger wakefulness when they are supposed to be resting.

Use light blankets

Most mothers obsess about their children feeling cold while asleep. This is normal but overheating can also make it uncomfortable for your baby to remain in bed. Use a light blanket for naps when it is hot outside to avoid excess sweating and regulate the temperature for them to sleep for long.

 

 

 

Make a comfort zone for their naptime

Your baby does not have to feel like they are missing out on all the fun if fun stuff surrounds their bed. For instance, you can allow them to sleep next to their favorite doll. Use some musical devices that sing your baby lullabies before they can finally fall asleep. A stuffed animal can also keep them in a positive mood ready to sleep.

Ensure that the atmosphere is calm

It is hard for your child to sleep in an area that has penetrating lights through the curtains. Use heavy window shades and switch off the lights to allow them to rest. Limit the noise in the room since any sounds can make them wake up.

Use “quiet time” instead of “naptime” for older toddlers

An old toddler may feel that they are outgrowing the napping . Do not use the authoritarian style of forcing them to go to sleep. This is their alone time to relax in their room without being disturbed by people. You can fill their crib with their toys and allow them to play during this quiet time. Within no time, they will fall asleep if their body is too tired to play.

Respond to early wake-up quickly

Sometimes, your child may wake up before the recommended time. If you respond fast, you can manage to help them get back to sleep. You can cuddle them for a while to help them relax and soon fall asleep. Use a Boba carrier that has a bouncing effect to soothe your child gently.

Final thoughts

From the above, we can learn that nap-time should not be a battleground between you and your baby. No matter how irritable your baby is, the tips above will calm them down and allow them to relax for hours. Take some time also to rest when your child is asleep in preparation for their wakefulness. Happy parenthood!

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Vaporizing is also known as vaping and it means as formation of a substance from solid or liquid state into gas with the help of heat. In the use of medical marijuana, vaping means using convection or conduction heating methods so as to take cannabis to an optimal temperature so that it releases cannabis compounds in the form of a vapour. Vaping cannabis is a safer, cleaner and less harmful option when you compare it walking. Let's find out what benefits a vaporiser can offer you.

Healthy lungs

Even doctors recommend using a vaporiser because it is one of the safest methods to consume medical marijuana. These vaporisers produce a pure and clean vapour when compared to smoking, and that results in a more pleasant experience. When you use a vaporiser to consume dried cannabis and/or oils, you don't have to worry about the toxins, carcinogens and respiratory irritants which may appear during smoking. It will keep your lungs healthy because it is safer than smoking which often creates different problems for your lungs and degrade their health.

Cost-effective

Vaporising is a cost effective method and it is more efficient in comparison to smoking. In smoking, only 25% available THC is converted but in case of vaporising 46% available THC is converted to vapour. Because of this improve conversion rate of THC, you need less cannabis to achieve the result you are looking for. So, it is a cost-effective option for you than consuming your cannabis medication.

Fast effects

If you want immediate relief by using medical marijuana, vapour inhalation is the ideal form for you. Vaporising provides faster results and it lasts for 2 to 3 hours. That is why it is more convenient and controlled method of consumption. In this method, there is no burning involved and so many people prefer the better taste of vapor in comparison to smoke.

Convenient option

You can consume medical marijuana discreetly with a vaporiser. The vapor produced by vaporisers does not include any smoke, it is odourless and it dissipates immediately. There is no odour related concerns when you use a vaporiser. It becomes especially handy for you when you are on the go. There are handheld vaporisers which can easily fit in your palm. You can take your vaporiser in your pocket without anyone knowing about it. Vape pens are also popular because of affordable pricing, mobility and ease of use.

There are different types of vaporisers available and among them Portable Hookahs are becoming more popular because it can be taken anywhere and it's easy to use. Try out different types of vaporisers so that you can find out one that you like.

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Depression affects around sixteen million adults in the UK, making it a common mental health problem. Studies show that depression most commonly begins during the teenage years, however, it can affect anybody of any age. One of the biggest struggles for those suffering with depression is managing the symptoms and keeping them under control. The difference between major depression and simply feeling blue is that depression can seriously interfere with everyday functioning, making it difficult to do regular tasks such as sleeping, eating, and washing. Here are five things that you can do starting from today to keep the symptoms of depression under control.

Royalty Free Photo

#1. Control Your Reactions:

Often, the best way to keep depressive symptoms at bay is by controlling the way you react to stress factors and triggers. Life can be full of the unexpected, and there are many things which could happen out of the blue that result in you feeling depressed. Whether it's the breakdown of a relationship, being involved in an accident, or being strongly affected by constant negative news stories, how you respond makes all the difference. Taking control means looking at a bad situation and deciding to focus on the positive rather than the negative. This could mean deciding to get professional help from places like the ELOS Psychology Center for issues that you're struggling with, or starting a new chapter in life, such as leaving a job or a relationship that's affecting your mental health.

#2. Look After Your Physical Health:

Placing more focus on looking after your physical health can often mean that improvements to your mental health will follow suit. Bear in mind that the physical shape and condition of your brain will often have an impact on how you feel on a day to day basis. Eating the right foods and getting enough regular exercise can be more useful than you may realize when it comes to alleviating depression symptoms. Nuts, dark leafy greens, onions, tomatoes, and berries are all great for fighting inflammation in the brain and keeping your mind clear.

#3. Get Enough Sleep:

If you're not sleeping enough, this can quickly begin to have a huge impact on your mental health. Maybe you're staying up late every night to deal with a massive work-load, or simply find that you're lying there struggling to sleep for hours on a regular basis. Insomnia can be one of the biggest risk factors for depression, so if you're having trouble sleeping then it's worth visiting your doctor as soon as possible to get treatment and support. You may find that a good night's sleep starts to facilitate improvements straight away.

#4. Try Alternative Therapies:

Talking therapies and medications have been proven effective for depression, and your doctor will help you determine which is the best choice for you. However, many people will also benefit from a range of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, massage, or meditation. In fact, anything that releases endorphins into your bloodstream will help to balance neurotransmitter activity in your brain and lead to feeling better.

If you found this information useful, we'd love to hear from you in the comments.