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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




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The following tips will help you to control your high blood pressure naturally.

Lose extra pounds

If you are overweight or obese, probably you already have high blood pressure. Blood pressure often increases along with your weight. If you are overweight, it may cause breathing problems and that alone can increase your blood pressure. Weight loss is a very effective method of controlling your blood pressure. If you can simply lose 4.5 kg of weight, you'll be able to reduce your blood pressure.

You should also keep your waistline in check. If it is growing too big, you are likely to have high blood pressure. If you carry too much weight around your waist that increases the possibility of high blood pressure and so it is important that you check your waistline. In case of men, waistline more than 40 inches means they are at risk of high blood pressure. In case of women the waist measurement should be below 35 inches.

A healthy diet

A healthy diet is very much important because your physical condition depend a lot on what you eat. The same way your blood pressure levels will also depend a lot on the foods that you consume. It's very important to eat a healthy diet that is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. You will need to reduce the amount of food that contains high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol. Following such a diet can use your blood pressure by up to 14 mm Hg. It is well known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.

Keeping a food diary will help you to find out what you are consuming regularly. It will be easier than to make some necessary changes because you'll be able to find out your true eating habits. It will also help you to find out how much, what and when you are eating.

Increasing potassium consumption will reduce the effect of sodium on blood pressure. The best source of that I fruits and vegetables. Your doctor will be able to help you to understand how much potassium you need. Making a habit of reading the food levels will help you to eat healthy and keep doing that without any problem.

Regular exercise

This is a very well-known and effective measure to control your blood pressure naturally. You need at least 30 minutes of physical exercise every day to keep your heart healthy and to ensure that you do not suffer from high blood pressure. Consistency is very important in exercising because if you stop doing it, your blood pressure will rise again. If you have slight high blood pressure or pre-hypertension, it is possible to stop it from developing into hypertension by simply exercising regularly. The best exercises for reducing blood pressure are walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing. If you are into strength training, that will also help you by reducing your blood pressure.

Reduce sodium consumption

It is very important for you to reduce sodium consumption if you want to reduce your high blood pressure. It is possible to reduce your blood pressure by 2 to 8 mm Hg by changing the amount of sodium you are consuming. It is important for you to reduce sodium to a level less than 2300 mg a day. However, African-Americans, people of age 51 or older, people diagnosed with high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease or diabetes should consume only 1500 mg of sodium everyday.

It will be easier for you to reduce sodium consumption by reading the food levels, eating less processed foods and reducing the amount of salt in different dishes.

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Bronchitis is nothing but an inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes. These tubes are the air passages between the mouth and nose and lungs. If the bronchial tubes are inflamed because of one or other reason, you will have a condition known as bronchitis. When this happens, you can only take less amount of air and oxygen into your lungs. You will also not be able to clear heavy mucus or phlegm from the airways.

Bronchitis can result from viruses, bacteria and other particles. When they irritate the bronchial tubes, bronchitis happens. Acute bronchitis is a short illness and it is generally seen after a cold or a viral infection. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis is a long-term illness. Chronic bronchitis may result from an environmental factors or extended illness. It is seen that cigarette smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis

As mentioned earlier, it is a short-term illness. It generally follows a cold or viral infection. The patient will have cough with mucus, soreness and chest discomfort. Sometimes, fever and shortness of breath maybe they. It generally lasts for a few days or weeks only.

Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a serious illness. Symptoms of this illness includes persistent, mucus producing cough that continues for more than three months. If you suffer from such a cough for three months out of the year for more than two years, then you should be careful and see a doctor to find out if you are suffering from chronic bronchitis. It is seen that people who suffer from this problem generally have different degrees of breathing difficulties. The symptoms of the problem may get better or worse. Sometimes if this type of bronchitis happens at the same time with emphysema, then it can result in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Causes of bronchitis

The most common cause of bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. And it may happen due to viruses, bacteria or other particles that can irritate the tubes.

Causes of acute bronchitis

Virus is the main cause of acute bronchitis. These are the viruses which also cause cold and flu. Sometimes, a cute bronchitis may also be caused by bacterial infections and exposure to substances. These substances may include tobacco smoke, fumes, vapors, air pollution, dust etc. which irritate the lungs.

Causes of chronic bronchitis

If the airway tissue is repeatedly irritated and as a result of that lungs are damaged, then chronic bronchitis may happen. It is seen that smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. Other causes may include exposure to air pollution, dust, fumes and repeated cases of acute bronchitis.

Symptoms of bronchitis

There are several symptoms of bronchitis present which will help you to find out if you have that problem or not. These symptoms are common for both acute and chronic bronchitis. Such symptoms include

  • Persistent cough
  • Mucus producing cough
  • Wheezing
  • Low fever and chills
  • Sore throat
  • Chest tightening
  • Breathlessness
  • Body aches
  • Sinuses and blocked nose
  • Headaches

The most common and main symptom of acute bronchitis is a cough that generally lasts for several weeks. Sometimes such a cough may also lasts for several months. The duration of the cough will depend on how much time is necessary for complete healing of the bronchial tubes.

The most common symptom of chronic bronchitis is having a very bad cough two or more times every year. The cough becomes worse during the winter months.

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There are many benefits of lucid dreaming and that is why it is increasingly becoming more and more popular. People now understand that lucid dreaming can help them to change their lives in a positive way and so they are interested in learning how to dream lucid dreams.

Let’s find out what benefits lucid dreaming can bring to your life.

Access your subconscious

Accessing your subconscious is not very easy and a major portion of the population does not know how to do. Most of the important data is stored in your subconscious and if you could access that data, it could have been wonderful for you because you could have achieved so much with the help of your subconscious mind. If you’re not lucid dreaming, you are not able to experience most of what is happening in your mind. Lucid dreaming can open the access to your subconscious and so it is like the password to unlock the important folder in your brain computer. Lucid dreaming will help you by unlocking the subconscious mind which has tremendous power and can completely change your life. You will get lots of information about everything that you want to know in your subconscious mind and lucid dreaming will help you to find access to that power.

Conquer your fears

The most important benefit of lucid dreaming can be the ability to conquer your fears when you know how to dream lucid dreams. Different people may have different fears. Many people are paralysed by the fear they have. For some of them, it becomes impossible to continue the daily life because of the fears they have. Your subconscious mind once to help you to get rid of this fear by playing out the fear dramas during your sleep but most of the time you are not present to witness them. So, you do not get any benefit. In a lucid dream, you can experience and process those fears right there and then. Lucid dreaming helps many people to get relief from their anxiety and depression. Lucid dreaming will help you to control your pain by controlling the feeling of pain in dreams.

Interpret your dreams

Lucid dreaming will help you to interpret your dreams. There so many confusing symbols used by your mind. You often have dreams and nightmares about different things but you do not know how to interpret those dreams and nightmares. It is not possible to interpret the dreams and nightmares you often have a lucid dreaming can help you to find meaning in them. Lucid dreaming will help you to experience those dreams in real time. You will not be confused any more after you are able to dream lucid dreams.

Stop nightmares

If you are having nightmares and as a result of that your life has become very difficult for you, you can get rid of such nightmares with the help of lucid dreaming. Like conquering your fears, you can also conquer your nightmares. You can control your dreams and so can stop having bad dreams when you know how to dream lucid dreams. Nightmares can be very difficult for many people and they have a direct impact on the daily lives of so many people. When you know how to dream lucid dreams, you’ll be able to control and get rid of those nightmares which have been haunting you for a long time. Lucid dreaming will help you to understand that you are dreaming whenever you are having a nightmare and as a result of that the nightmare will lose its power on you.

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When certain health conditions impact a person's ability to eliminate waste, that individual must rely on other measures to expel waste material from their body. People who must have an alternate process to eliminate waste from their bodies are usually given an ostomy. This is a surgical procedure that creates a stoma or artificial opening in torso.

People who undergo this surgery, typically do not enjoy the experience. However, they manage this condition in the best way possible. One way that ostomy patients handle this situation is by using an Ostomy bag cover.
Ostomy bags are usually made from a heavy duty clear plastic material that has an airtight seal. These bags are designed to securely hold waste materials. They are quite hard to puncture or to rip. However, an ostomy bag is very unsightly to observe. Human waste material is something that people do not like to see. The best way to conceal this necessary medical device is by using a cover.
One of the best things that people can do for their ostomy health is to wear an ostomy covering. Stoma concealment bags are made from stylish fabrics and durable materials. They can stand up to rigorous exercise and they can be worn in a variety of different settings. Best of all, the coverings are versatile which allows them to blend in with a variety of clothing styles.
People can wear a covering that will match their jeans and t-shirt. Ostomy coverings have been designed for suits and formal wear. Ostomy patients can even wear them with swimming trunks or bathing suits. The coverings come in a wide variety of colors and patterns. Females can have coverings custom made to coordinate with their bathing suits.
Let's be honest, some adults who undergo ostomy surgery are young and very attractive. They want to look attractive and be able to show off their body in a swimsuit. A specially designed ostomy cover can help them to achieve that look. The covering will stop the worry and embarrassment they usually feel from their stoma. This is great for a stoma patient’s mental health and self esteem. They will no longer have to feel out of place in public because of their condition.
Stoma coverings are also functional and not just stylish. When an ostomy patient has to empty or change their unit; the covering does not interfere with this process. This is crucial for providing maximal comfort and for saving time. No stoma patient wants to spend a lot of time dealing with an ostomy bag. They just want to quickly change or empty the unit and then go about their business.
Stoma coverings are available for people of all ages and all sizes. They can also be custom made for any type of clothing style. People who are active can wear an ostomy covering and not worry about it failing when they are busy doing what they love. An ostomy patient will also find this piece to be functional and very supportive with their everyday gear. Ultimately, an stoma covering will help to improve an ostomy patient’s health and wardrobe in the new year.


The following home remedies have anti-ageing effect on your skin. Let’s find out what can keep your skin young, smooth and beautiful.


Honey at its purest form can help you to stay young. It has anti ageing properties. It is the best moisturizer available in the nature. Honey can help you to keep wrinkles at bay. If you moisturize your skin with honey, it will remain young, smooth and beautiful. It also contains antioxidants which will help you by repairing the damage caused by free radicals. It will also rejuvenate your skin.

Carrot and potato pack

For this, you need one small carrot, one small potato, a pinch of turmeric and a pinch of baking soda. You need to boil the carrot and potato and then mash them to make a smooth paste. Add a pinch of turmeric and baking soda and a little bit of water and mix them well. Apply on your face and keep it for 20 minutes. Then rinse with warm water.

They are good for you because carrots are a rich source of vitamin A, which is important in boosting collagen production in the skin. Collagen will make your skin tight and will also prevent wrinkles. This mixture will also provide you with a youthful glow. Potato is a very good anti-ageing ingredient which will help you by preventing wrinkles. It will also even out the skin tone.


Egg pack can help you to improve your skin condition. Along with one egg white, you need half teaspoon milk cream and 1 teaspoon lemon juice. You need to apply the paste on your face and then after 15 minutes rinse it with cold water. Egg white is a very powerful anti-ageing product because it contains anti-ageing agents like omega-3 fatty acids, zinc and proteins. It will help you by tightening the skin and making it firm and smooth.

Rose water pack

For Rose water pack, you need 2 teaspoons rosewater, half teaspoon lemon juice, few drops of glycerin and a cotton ball. Mix all of them together and did the cotton ball in the mixture and apply it on your face. Rosewater is beneficial for your skin and it has regenerating properties. It also has a calming effect on the skin. It can help you by releasing blemishes and puffiness under the eyes.

Coconut milk pack

For this pack, you will need 3 tablespoons coconut milk and a cotton ball. Dip the cotton ball in coconut milk and apply it on your face. Keep it for 20 minutes and then rinse with cool water. If you repeated 2 to 3 times every week it will help you to improve your skin considerably.

Coconut is very useful in the fight against ageing. It can fight all signs of ageing. Coconut milk can make your skin soft and smooth. It contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. If you want to keep the wrinkles away you need to use this pack.

Yogurt pack

For this, you will need 2 teaspoon yogurt, 1 teaspoon honey, 1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice, a pinch of turmeric and one vitamin E capsule. You need to mix the yogurt, honey, lemon juice and turmeric and the oil present inside the vitamin E capsule. Apply the mixture on your face and leave it for 10 to 15 minutes. Rinse with warm water.

This pack is useful because yogurt has high amount of wrinkle preventing nutrients like vitamins, minerals, enzymes and fats. It will keep your skin fresh and hydrated. The lactic acid present in yogurt will shrink pores and tighten the skin.


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Ever since e-cigarettes were invented, vaping has become a choice way for smokers to get their fix without the traditional use of tobacco. However, compared to smokers, vapers are few and far between. So, how many people actually vape around the world?


Because vaping is relatively new, the laws on the use of e-cigarettes change rapidly. Governments are still trying to figure out who can vape, when vaping can take place, where vaping can be done, where e-cigarettes can be sold, and, most importantly to them, how to tax e-cigarettes.


According to the latest numbers by the CDC, about 9 million people in the United States are vape users. Euromonitor International reports that about 43% of the world’s total vape users are in America. So, we can estimate that there are about 22 million vape users around the world. What has spawned this dramatic growth?


Money, Money, Money


Regular smoking can be expensive, especially for people who smoke a pack, two packs, or half a pack a day. E-smoking radically changes this outlay since one e-cigarette can theoretically last a lifetime, although most users will want to get a new e-cig every few months or so. Multiple vaping devices are available and users have the option to select one that fits their budget and style. E-cigarettes, of course, are more expensive at the outset. But a high upfront cost gives way to a lifetime of savings.


People Want to Stop Smoking


It may seem strange, but people are turning to vaping because they hope it will help them quit smoking tobacco. Everyone knows smoking is bad. Cigarette companies themselves place warnings on their own products: If you buy this and use this, you could get lung cancer. Even smokers know they are putting their health at risk every time they light up. With e-cigarettes, vapers can control and gradually reduce their intake and dependence on nicotine. Stopping cold turkey doesn’t work for most people. A gradual reduction in the smoking habit, while replacing the activity with e-cigarettes, is a strong draw for people who want to preserve their health.


No More Smoking Smell


People who don’t smoke and who didn’t grow up around smokers generally abhor the smell of burnt tobacco leaves. But smokers can’t seem to get rid of it. It’s in their clothes, it’s in their cars, it’s in their homes, it’s in their hair. The conscientious smoker will feel obligated to reduce the odor of smoking when in the workplace or with family members who don’t smoke. It’s the polite thing to do, and vaping allows them to do that. Vaping doesn’t leave behind the foul smell of tobacco or cling to your clothes and hair. On top of that, with companies like Vaporescence, vaping liquids come in different and pleasant flavors, enabling users to keep their breath fresh so as not to be offensive to others.


These are just some of the reasons why literally millions of smokers (and non-smokers) are turning to vaping.