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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




When you are using traditional ab training methods and techniques, you are taking some big risks. It is a very dangerous abs mistakes that you make. It's not your fault because this is how traditional abs training works. You want to create six-pack abs or want to have awesome abs and that is why you are trying different techniques and methods. But you need to know more about the risks you are taking so that you can be careful about them and prevent any possible problem.

Know about these three unnecessary risks of traditional abs training so that you can prevent them.

Abs training risk 1: accelerated ageing

If you are performing lots of crunchers and other faulty abs training methods, it will show up in the visible sign of your hunch. This is a condition which is evident in many people who train hard for great abs. It is even seen in case of people who are fit and have a six-pack. It is known as kyphosis. If you engage in poor abs training, it will cause overactive upper abdominals which will pull the upper body forward. As a result of that it will create a stooped posture which will increase stress on your low back. Your abs will be unbalanced and as a result of that will actually pull your breast bone to your big bone and compress your internal organs. So the abdominal organs in your body will become stuck. They will not be able to function properly as they should if there is no disturbance. That will cause accelerated disease and ageing.

Abs training risk 2: bulging pot belly and back pain

There is another visible effect of unbalanced core strength. It is a pot belly. If you train your abs in the wrong way, it will make you look fatter and there will be no point in training so hard to create six-pack abs. This happens because when you train your abs the wrong way, it will over tighten the hip flexors. The psoas major, which is one of the hip flexors starts on the discs of the lower back and inserts on the top of your thigh bone. Wrong abs training will shorten and tighten your hip flexors and will pull your pelvis forward and down. You will have a sagging belly and as a result of that you will look 5 to 10 lbs heavier than you are. The distorted pelvis resulting from the wrong exercises will also cause serious back problem and pain.

Abs training risk 3: serious disc damage

If you are doing the wrong exercises and doing them in the wrong way, abs training can cause serious disc damage. Most of the abs exercises available today force your spine into extreme flexing and it can increase intra-discal pressure. If the pressure is too much, it can cause fluid inside your disc go out. In such cases, problems like disc protrusion or disc hernias may happen. Treatment of such problems will take months and the treatments are painful. You probably won't like to have such type of injuries and undergo such treatment options.

There are right abs training available which can be done in the right way without any of the risks involved to your body.


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Global Pandemics May Be Due to Microorganism CharacteristicsInfectious disease preparedness concentrates predominantly on microorganisms that are used in biological warfare, political environments, and present outbreaks.

This neglects to represent the more serious microorganisms which are not generally known, as per students from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, which were noted in their report of the characteristics of microorganisms with high pandemic capacities.

The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens

This report, “The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens,” launches a system for choosing common microorganisms that may create a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR) and makes procedures for enhancing GCBR readiness.

GCBRs occur when biological agents would suddenly lead to a sudden, general catastrophe that is beyond the powers of governments and private companies to manage.

Not much data about GCBR agents exist, leaving the community to rely on past experiences to guide their preparedness goals.

According to the researchers, health security preparedness desires to be adaptable to new threats and should not be based entirely on historical reports.

A good strategy to this situation will, eventually, help defend against a GCBR event.

To define the discoveries and recommendations of their report, they looked into published writing and surveys on rising infectious disease qualities, the pathogenic nature of microorganisms, and other related points.

They talked with more than 120 specialists from the scholarly community, industry, and government and met a gathering with these authorities to examine about starting assessment of the expertise the staff had accumulated.

The first finding offered within this report outlines the usual traits of a GCBR-level pandemic pathogen.

Its method of transmission, the team has concluded, will be respiratory. It’ll be infectious amid the incubation period, preceding the development of symptoms, or when infected people give slight signs.

Eventually, it will want distinct host factors such as immunocompromise, and further intrinsic microbial pathogenicity traits that can enhance disease spread and illness.

The report additionally clarifies the pandemic capability of different microorganisms, noticing that RNA viruses are the biggest risk.


The team recommends the following strategies:

Readiness against GCBR dangers ought to have a focus on approach with some adaptability.

Old pathogen strategies should not be permanent ideas that stultify considerations on pandemic pathogens.

Improving surveillance of human infections from respiratory-borne RNA viruses should be a greater priority.

A higher accentuation on setting up a particular pipeline of numerous antiviral agents for RNA respiratory infections – both broad spectrum and specific – would include versatility against known GCBR agents.influenza vaccine

Vaccines towards RNA respiratory viruses, including a universal influenza vaccine, should be of priority.

A research agenda for upgrading the treatment of respiratory-spread RNA virus infections must be financed by pharmaceutical associations and medical device firms and sought after by medical centers.

Specific assessment is warranted for respiratory-borne RNA virus studies that could develop pandemic risks.

Pursuing special diagnoses of infectious diseases globally should be routine.


What an erection problem?

When you become sexually aroused, hormones, nerves, muscles and blood vessels work together to create an erection. Nerve signals are sent from the brain to the penis and as a result of that blood flows to the muscles of penis. When the blood fills the penis and erection is achieved. After the erection the blood vessels to the penis close off so that the erection can be maintained.

This is the normal situation what should happen, but in case of an erection problem this will not happen. At some point in life many people may have difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection. It erection problems happen when you're not able to achieve and maintain an erection form enough to have sexual intercourse. For most men this problem may or, occasionally and it is not a very serious issue. But if this is a frequent happening that may mean that you have an erection problem and you need some help.

Erection problems are also known as erectile dysfunction, importance and sexual dysfunction.

Common causes

The causes of erection problems can be physical, psychological or a combination of the both.

Physical causes of erection problems are generally seen in case of older men. Such problems generally happen because of different diseases and disorders that affect the nerves and blood vessels which are necessary for erection.

Some of the common physical causes of erectile problems are-

  • heart disease
  • hardening of the arteries
  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • high cholesterol
  • Parkinson's disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Peyronie's disease
  • certain medications, including diuretics, beta blockers, muscle relaxers, or antidepressants
  • alcoholism or substance abuse
  • long-term tobacco use
  • trauma or injury to the spinal cord or genital region
  • congenital genitalia problems
  • liver or kidney disease
  • treatment for prostate problems

There are some psychological causes of erection problems. These causes can affect men of any age. Some of the most common psychological causes of erection problems are-

  • worry over not being able to achieve or maintain an erection
  • prolonged emotional distress related to economic, professional, or social issues
  • relationship conflicts
  • depression

Erection problems in young men

Some young men also suffer from erection problems. Men who are 20 to 30 may also experience such problems. The present data shows that the number of such problem in young men are increasing. About 20% to 30% of men ages 17 to 40 experience problem in erection. In some cases the problem is moderate but in some other cases it can be severe. According to scientific studies done on such cases, erection problems in young men happen mostly because of their lifestyle and psychological reasons rather than a physical reasons. Young men who smoke, drink and do drugs are more likely to suffer from erection problems than older men. Some other young men suffer from erection problem because of anxiety.

Diagnosis of erection problems

Diagnosis of erection problems is very important so as to know and find the cause of erection problems. Some of the taste which are done for such diagnoses include-

  • complete blood count (CBC)- this is a set of blood tests that counts the low red blood cell cells in your blood
  • hormone profile-this test is necessary for finding out the levels of sex hormones (testosterone and prolactin)
  • nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)- this is a test for finding out the function of your erection during sleep
  • duplex ultrasound- this test takes picture of the body's tissues using high-frequency sound waves
  • urinalysis- it is a test for measuring protein and testosterone levels in the urine


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Addiction is a disease. This means various factors contribute to addiction which is contrary to what many people think.

Addiction doesn't arise from a single factor, rather, it's a combination of risk factors which accelerate addiction. These risk factors include biological factors, drug administration and type, and the surrounding environment.

Whichever the factors leading to addiction, the best way to deal with it is by checking into rehab facilities. You can check drug rehab in NJ, but before then, take an in-depth look at how these risk factors cause addiction.

Biological Factors

Co-occurring mental conditions, DNA and genetic predisposition can increase the chances of addiction. Up to 50 percent of drug addictions rely on genes inherited from previous generations. In fact, a child with addicted parents is 8 times likely to suffer from addiction later in their life.

Mental conditions can also lead to addiction. Some of these mental conditions include post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and attention/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals might fall into the temptation to buy over-the-counter drugs in a bid to medicate themselves.

Gender is another biological factor which can increase the chances of addiction. Some studies show that men are at a higher risk of suffering from addiction than women.

Frequent drug use can change how the brain interprets pleasure. This happens after the substance makes physical changes to the nerve cells thus interfering with the communication system. These may not reverse even after substance withdrawal and can be permanent.

The Surrounding Environment

The surrounding environment plays a major role in addiction. These include peer groups and family beliefs which can cause substance use, which will lead to addiction.

It all starts at home. Studies show that children from neglectful and abusive homes tend to fall into addiction later in life. Alcohol and drug abuse become their sole way of substituting their unhappiness and the void created at home.

In addition, if the children have easy access to alcohol or drugs, they can fall into the temptation of using them which may lead to addiction.

On top of home issues, age plays a massive role in addiction. Some studies indicate that early exposure to drugs can cause severe addiction. This is because the brain is still young and developing. Therefore, it'll get used to the substances making it difficult to function normally without the drug.

Peer pressure poses a major danger to adolescents since they are still naïve and accept any suggestion. The pressure for social acceptance and social likes among peers is one of the reasons why many teenagers turn to drugs. The fear of missing out while trying to fit can lead to addiction.

Stress will lead to substance abuse if not checked. Life presents numerous challenges. Some might seem impossible to overcome and with increasing pressure from various sectors, many people turn to alcohol and drug abuse in a bid to escape from reality. As a result, this habit turns into an addiction.

Drug Administration and Type

The type of drug you take and how it's administration can lead to addiction. For example, heroin or cocaine are highly potent and will cause severe addiction compared to other drugs such as marijuana.

How you use the drug may increase the chances of developing an addiction. Oral drug ingestion tends to be slower compared to smoking or injecting a drug. While the last two methods tend to cause a greater high, the feeling doesn't last as long.

While people living around these factors have a higher chance of falling into addiction, it's not 100 percent guarantee that they will. These risk factors show a likelihood. Anyone can develop an addiction problem since we're different.

In addition, the severity of the addiction will vary from one person to another.

Before you can prepare your child for their first visit to the dentist you need to prepare yourself. Ideally you already have a dentist that you're happy with. But if you don't or you're concerned about how they will deal with your child you need to check out other dentists in your area.

It is advisable to speak to friends, family and look at the website of potential dentists; they should be professional looking and inviting. You can click here to see a great example of what you should be looking for.

Don't forget to talk to your dentist about bringing your child for their first visit; this will ensure the dentist is ready and reassure you that they will look after your child. The more experience they have with children the better!

Talking To Your Child

Children are curious and highly attuned to your emotional state. If you're anxious about the dentist then there is a good chance that they will be to.

You need to choose a time when you are calm to speak to your child about their impending first dental visit. The best approach is simply to explain to them why looking after your teeth is so important and how the dentist simply takes a look at your teeth to help them stay healthy.

On your first visit the dentist will literally do no more than examine their teeth; it will be over in a few minutes.

The important thing here is to keep talking to your child; it is much harder to fear the dentist if you are aware of what they are going to do and why. This is true regardless of your age.

Brushing teeth

From the moment your child has their first tooth they should start learning to look after their teeth. You need to get them a fun toothbrush and use a tiny bit of toothpaste. Gently brush their teeth for them to show them how it is done and that it can be fun.

If t helps dance while you're doing it!

If you have older children they can join in to make sure the younger child sees it as fun and not a chore.

Visit With You

Anyone can be nervous when they are going somewhere they have never been before. The best approach is to take them with you to the dentist when you are having a checkup. Be sure to stay calm yourself!

Your child will be able to see everything that is happening and the dentist may even allow them to look at the tools of the trade. All of these things will help to remove any fear; the dentist will seem like a friend and a checkup doesn't seem so bad.

Time Your Visit

You want to take your child for their first visit when you have plenty of spare time. This will ensure that you are not stressed and avoid them picking up on your stress.

You may also want to take a few items with you to keep their mind busy while you're sat in the waiting room. If t helps you can promise them a reward afterwards but it may be best to avoid sugary treats!

There are some natural herbs and spices which help in natural healing.

Saffron – Crocus sativus

Saffron is a spice and it is one of the world's most expensive spices. It has been used as a medicine since ages. It contains very important antioxidants which can help you to protect your body from oxidant induced stress, infections, cancers and boost your immunity. It has many therapeutic applications in traditional medicines in different parts of the world. It is often used as antiseptic, antioxidant, antidepressant, digestive aid and anti-convulsant.

Saffron is used in respiratory complaints like coughs, emphysema and asthma. It can treat insomnia, gas, Alzheimer's, depression, shock, fright, pain, heartburn and dry skin. It also improves your liver health and so used as a liver tonic. It is used for treatment of diabetes. Saffron is also useful in reducing the withdrawal symptom from drugs and alcohol. Women have been using it to ease menstrual cramps and PMS. Men have been using it for treatment of premature ejaculation and infertility. That is why saffron is considered as an aphrodisiac.

Tulsi (Holy Basil) – Ocimum Tenuiflorum

It's an Indian herbal plant. Tulsi also has significance in Hindu religion. It has many medicinal properties and works in different diseases and problems. It is a rejuvenating, immune boosting and also helps in restoring the body's negative reaction to stress. To see can also remove fluoride from what are and it has a wonderful effect on the adrenal glands and your cardiovascular and nervous systems. To say has antifungal properties and so it can also be used for treating candida overgrowth.

Tulsi is used as a tea to relieve indigestion and headaches. It may also have the capacity to inhibit breast cancer. It can shrunk tumors by reducing their blood supply and can also stop the spread.

Turmeric – Curcuma longa

It is generally used as a spice in curries and other food items. It provides great color and flavor. It can prevent colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Turmeric is essential for you because it can boost your immune system as it has high levels of antioxidants. It is widely used in India. It can prevent for different types of cancers-breast, colon, prostate and lung cancer. It has strong anti-inflammatory properties and it's good for your digestive system and your stomach. It has positive impact on your liver and can improve your liver health. You can take it in a capsule form or consume a raw. Take a tablespoon of freshly grated turmeric or a teaspoon of dried turmeric in about 30 ml of water and add a little sweetener like raw honey or maple syrup and drink that every day to get all the benefits turmeric has to offer.

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamon is important for people suffering from type 2 diabetes because when taken daily it can successfully reduce that sugar by about 10%. Cinnamon also has the capacity to reduce heart -related risks and will lower bad cholesterol by 13% and triglycerides by 23%. It also has positive impact on your nervous and stomach system. The tincture of cinnamon is good for heavy periods or absent periods. It is also useful in case of diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and also in relieving flatulence.

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