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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson’s disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox’s team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox’s team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.


MCAT Preparation

If you want sure shot MCAT success and want a score higher score, then, it would help you to know about the following tips to prepare for the MCAT the best way possible.

Know yourself

Before you go for MCAT preparation, knowing yourself will help you in preparing better for the test. Knowing yourself will help you to schedule at least 3 to 6 hours every day for 3 to 6 months for your MCAT preparation. That much time is usually necessary for successfully get the score you need for this examination. It is important for you to complete MCAT practice tests before you actually take the exam. Your performance will decide how much time you'll need for preparation to successfully crack the MCAT.

An honest assessment of your performance in practice tests is very important to find out where you stand right now because that will decide how much effort and time will be necessary for your preparation.

Setting goals

If you really want to achieve something, you need to set goals and the same is true in case of MCAT preparation. If you want to crack this test, you will have to set specific goals and then start working to achieve those goals. Many medical schools require average or just above average MCAT scores. If that is what you want, then you don't have to prepare like a student applying to Harvard. The salient details seen in case of a taste for Harvard is rarely necessary for most students taking the MCAT.

Time management

It is also important to manage your time. You will have to divide your time well to ensure that you get enough time to prepare for everything that will be in your MCAT practice tests. Generally, students tend to spend too much time reviewing but they do not spend the necessary time practicing. If you really want MCAT success, you will have to spend 1/3 of your time completing your review; 1/3 completing practice questions and 1/3 of your time completing full-length MCAT practice tests.

Practice tests

The practice tests are important because they will help you to understand your understanding¯ and will also allow you to integrate and apply your learning under timed conditions. You'll be able to see how you perform within a specific time and are you at the same stage where you think you are. It will also give you a chance to practice similar questions that you may face during MCAT.

The best way to do it

The best way to prepare for MCAT will be a three-step process. First, you will get the knowledge necessary for MCAT. In the second step, you will go for reasoning and application of the same knowledge you gathered. The third step will be to go for exam-level practice which can be done using full-length practice tests.

For the review part, you can use YouTube or Khan Academy MCAT videos, Kaplan or Princeton Review books, Examkrackers or Gold Standard practice tests, and other sources. This ensures that you get an effective MCAT preparation content review, foundational and MCAT level practice questions and full-length MCAT practice tests followed by a strategic study. All of these will ensure a higher MCAT score for you. You need to combine different resources to ensure that you have the possibility of getting a higher MCAT score.


Tiap pemain poker tentu punyai arah akhir dalam tiap laga yang dimainkan yakni memenangi laga lalu jadi juara poker atau mungkin dengan kata lain memperoleh uang dalam laga yang ia masuki. Tetapi ada hal yang perlu dilihat dalam tiap putaran permainan taruhan Agen Poker Online . Kalian harus tahu jika setiap saat kalian lakukan taruhan dalam putaran itu memiliki kandungan arah yang pasti jika kalian tidak mempunyai arah itu karena itu itu ialah taruhan terjelek kalian. Apa arah penting dari tiap taruhan poker yang perlu kalian tahu ialah

arah lakukan taruhan di poker

1. Memperoleh Nilai

Memperoleh satu nilai dalam agen poker online ialah arah paling basic serta gampang yang seringkali orang kerjakan di dunia poker. Bila kalian berpikir jika kalian memperoleh kartu yang benar-benar bagus dalam putaran itu, serta musuh kalian menyebut sama juga dengan jumlahnya uang yang kalian meminta, karena itu kalian akan tingkatkan nilai taruhan pada pot supaya kalian dapat memenangi putaran itu.

Jelas di sini telihat arah kalian ialah memperoleh nilai kemenangan. Arah ini dapat kita pakai jika kita memiliki kartu yang benar-benar bagus.

2. Membuat perlindungan diri kalian

Membuat perlindungan kita dalam putaran poker adalah hal yang penting juga. Saat kita mempunyai kartu yang bagus, tapi musuh agen poker online kita memiliki peluang untuk memperoleh kartu semakin bagus dari kita, karena itu kita harus memaksakan untuk bikin musuh kita menyerah dengan tingkatkan nilai taruhan <a href=”” rel=”nofollow”>poker</a> kita dengan jumlahnya besar.

Sama dengan arah no 1, jika kita memaksakan musuh kita kalah dengan tingkatkan nilai taruhan kita. Perbedaannya dengan arah no 1 ialah di sini demikian the flop dibuka langsung dengan agresif tingkatkan nilai taruhan dengan besar sekali. Ini akan membuat musuh dipengaruhi psikologinya. Musuh berpikir jika kartu kita betul-betul benar-benar bagus serta merasakan terancam, selanjutnya akan fold.

3. Menggertak / bluffing

Arah ke-3 ialah menggertak musuh kalian. Saat kalian merasakan tidak dapat memenangi putaran itu dengan kartu yang kalian punya waktu itu, hanya satu langkah untuk memenangi putaran dengan memakai gertakan.

Saat menggertak jangan memberikan satu ekspresi grogi, suka atau emosi. Lebih baik masih diam serta tenang agat tidak bisa dibaca musuh kita.

4. Memperoleh Info

Kadang seseorang pemain agen poker online harus lakukan taruhan bukan untuk memperoleh nilai, bukan maksudnya membuat perlindungan diri mereka atau bahkan juga untuk arah menggertak. Kadang kelihatan permainan itu sangat jelek sebab ia membuat kekeliruan. Tetapi sebetulnya di balik itu semua, seseorang pemain poker itu sedang menggumpulkan info bagaimana musuh mainnya bereaksi.

sports wear

Performance clothing is no longer just for athletes. In fact, travel about just anywhere in town and you’re bound to see men and women of all ages wearing this comfortable and casual attire meant for athletic and everyday use.

Indeed, staples like soft leggings and cozy zip-up sweaters are popular with avid yogis and not-so-avid yogis alike. And it's no wonder why: Athleisure is comfortable. Sure, everyone who wears it can attest to its level of comfort, but how did stretchy pants, soft minimalist tops and sneakers come to dominate the American fashion market and our closets? 

Here's the scoop on why athletic wear has become an everyday norm.

It’s Just Plain Comfortable to Wear

Deirdre Clemente, a fashion historian at the University of Nevada Las Vegas, has an idea of how athleisure came to dominate everyday fashion. Clemente says it’s a combination of three trends. 

The first of these trends is the technological improvements to the synthetic fibers used to make certain types of athletic clothing. These tech improvements have allowed for the materials of athletic apparel like spandex to be more flexible, washable and durable than other types of clothing. 

The second trend relates to our modern obsession around healthy appearances. And finally, the last trend accounts for the overall decline of formality in American fashion. Just take a look around your workplace and note how many of your co-workers are wearing sneakers. The number is probably a lot higher than you might have thought. 

And Polo shirts? At one time the Polo shirt was called a tennis shirt. Now, Polo shirts are a staple of office fashion and are often made from fabrics used in sports apparel. Combine these three trends together and you get the rise of athleisure, according to Clemente. 

It’s Made of High-Tech Performance Fabrics

The U.S. Rubber Co., began producing shoes with rubber soles way back in 1892. Since then, clothing and shoe manufacturers have made leaps and bounds. In fact, with its ability to take your fitness and comfort to the next level, today's high-tech athletic apparel is more advanced than ever before. Sport-specific clothing is also a big factor. Take trail running, for example.

Decades ago most sports clothing could all fit under one umbrella. Today, athletic clothing is more sport-specific. Clothing designed for trail running includes high-tech features and fabrics that offer waterproof and breathable construction and training shoes with grip traction, designed exclusively for slippery and uneven surfaces. It's like how soccer cleats are designed exclusively for soccer, not baseball or football.

It’s for Everyday Wear ” in the Gym and at Home

Athleisure has become a popular choice for many reasons. That’s because athleisure clothing isn’t just a single-purpose item like those fancy dress shoes you have tucked away at the top of your closet for special occasions. 

Clothing that falls under the umbrella of athleisure offers multi-purpose uses and can be worn day-to-day for a series of different activities, whether it's a morning workout, a quick trip to the grocery store or simply lounging at home after a long day at work. 

Because athleisure works for so many different lifestyles, it’s no wonder why it’s an obvious choice for so many people. After all, it’s even in the name ” and that’s what it’s all about.

Athleisure Offers Numerous Benefits

Athleisure isn't new; it's just been rebranded in recent years. Just take a look in your closet and there's a good chance you’ll find more than a few items that fall under the athleisure umbrella, whether you run trails or run to the grocery store.


Perubahan judi poker online di dunia maya makin bertambah sejak tanda smartphone makin berjaya serta meminati beberapa orang. Untuk beberapa dekade ini tersedia banyak developer aplikasi banyak muncul tawarkan feature operasi sebagai ketertarikan golongan kelompok, sama seperti dengan wahid perjudian online untuk waktu ini tidak cuma dapat dimainkan disitus web tapi mampu anda nikmati diponsel android.

Judi poker online dulu adalah perjudian yang sebetulnya sangatlah popular, dimainkan dimeja dengan jumlahnya seputar 8 orang yang sama-sama bertatap muka. Serta diera kekinian ini, anda tinggal hidup di rumah serta memainkannya lewat hp android anda. Cukup gampang, sederhana dan tentunya lebih mengirit saat. Lalu feature apa yang dapat anda jumpai tatkala bermain judi poker online di hp android? Membaca penjelasannya berikut ini saat tersebut.

Agen judi poker on line memberi dukungan aplikasi android serta ios

Pertama anda akan memperoleh keringanan susukan untuk bermain dengan hp android, aplikasi poker android ini tawarkan keringanan untuk semua anggota yang sangat ribut di dunia riil cantik dengan pekerjaan mereka serta aktivitas yang lain. Kamu cuma cukup menjalankan hp serta menambang uang datang beberapa puluh juta sehari-harinya. Langkah bermain judi setara ini tambah lebih akurat serta efisien dibanding harus duduk dikursi serta permainan dimuka computer. Bisa penuh mengambil alih waktu dan pekerjaan yang sudah seharusnya usai berjam-jam waktu lalu. Selanjutnya feature favorit yang paling ditonjolkan dari pemakaian aplikasi poker android itu yakni info transaksi /hari yang direkap dengan rapi hingga pemain dapat lihat sebegitu besar pengeluaran dan kemenangan bermain judi poker online.

Apa aplikasi ini dukungan dengan semua smartphone

Untuk sekarang aplikasi agen poker terpercaya online sah telah dukungan untuk semua type smartphone beserta versus android 4. 0 keatas. Versus hp android kebawah belum memberi semangat secara baik sebab susunan databese yang benar-benar bukan sinkron. Anda dapat tampil permainan judi poker dan type permainan lain diantaranya ceme online, domino qiu qiu, live poker, capsa susun sampai permainan judi lain cukup dengan memakai satu aplikasi saja. Tersebut adalah satu keringanan yang selanjutnya membuat beberapa bagian jauh bertambah nyaman, irit waktu serta singkat.

Bagaimanakah cara download aplikasi situs poker online Formal

Anda tak demi bingung ingin download operasi judi poker online yang mana, cukup hanya bertandang di situs judi agen poker online yang berada pada internet karena itu bisa download serta langsung menyelenggarakan di handphone kecintaan dikau. Butuh untuk didapati bila diaplikasi poker ini tidak ada menu sign up atau daftar, hingga kamu harus mendaftarkan terlebih lepas disitus resminya untuk jadi ID serta password yang nanti dipakai untuk login aplikasi. Kemudian anda bisa mengawali untuk mendeposit serasi kemauan serta mulai permainan beberapa type permainan judi kartu online terhitung poker serta kawan-kawannya.

Nah tersebut beberapa info yang dapat kami berikan berkaitan dengan aplikasi judi poker online android yang sekarang sudah dukungan dengan type hp yang menggunaan OS android. Anda tak perlu menyalakan laptop atau computer untuk bermain judi, sekalian tiduran bahkan juga sekalian sikap bisa nikmati permainan tangkas. Jadi nantikan ditambah lagi, mari unduh aplikasi poker online android serta temukan kemenangan sampai beberapa persepuluhan juta rupiah sekarang pula. Temukan bonus jackpot sejumlah 30 juta. Terima sayang.

self medication

It is widely assumed that a person suffering from a headache, body aches or mild fever, will not generally decide to pay the doctor a visit, but will be inclined instead to take some tried-and-true, readily available medication that they know by experience will soothe the pain. Most of the time, these are relatively mild pains that may not persist beyond a few days and, therefore, the person foregoes an appointment with the doctor in favor of home remedies or quick-fixes. 

It is worth noting that a large proportion of people self-medicating in this way are doing so at their own risk. A qualified professional investigating these decisions to avoid doctors and prescribe treatments for themselves may well be stunned by the self-inflicted harm being done. 

However loud and insistent this hypothetical investigative doctor's protests, many people who self-medicate do so while bearing the following quote in mind; it’s not necessary, I know my body, and I know what I have to take¯. If there is a grain of truth to that statement, it exists in the short term;  and that momentary relief now may come at the expense of great harm to the body in the long run. 

Niznik Behavioral Health has done research on self-medication behaviors in both men and women.

In conducting this survey, testimony and inquiry based research, the goal was to establish the underlying causes of self-medication, as well as its frequency and the quantities of self-prescribed remedies consumed. 

To better understand the results of the research, it is important to clarify that self-medication is not limited to aspirin or simple home remedies applied to cure minor illnesses. Self-medication includes the consumption of alcohol, narcotics, and antidepressants as a means to remedy an ailment of any kind. 

Any mind or sense-altering substance has the potential to facilitate abuse or addiction. The substances we prioritized in our analysis do not only not cure or treat the current affliction, but tend also to invite or exacerbate future medical problems in the longer term; problems which are potentially more dangerous and difficult to cure. Moreover, addictions resulting from self-medication may often adversely affect the friends and families of the afflicted individual. 

Part of the research was based on identifying the most common substances with which people self-medicated, and differentiating the incidence of their use by gender. The study indicated that certain substances are consumed by men at a higher rate than women, and that the opposite was true for other substances. 

In all, the five most consumed substances were alcohol, marijuana, CBD products, opioids and body-ache medications. 

The study carried out by Niznik Behavioral Health also determined the various motivations behind self-medicating with drugs and alcohol. These motivations were categorized into four groups: physical problems, depression, social anxiety disorders, and general anxiety disorders. Across underlying causes, the study revealed that the most used substance was alcohol, and that the second was marijuana.

It is important to bear in mind that, in cases where abuse or addiction originated from substance misuse for purposes of self-medication, most of these substances can be avoided by visiting a professional who is qualified to make a valid diagnosis. Only then, on the prescription or prognosis of a medical professional, should a substance be consumed or a treatment be undertaken to combat or treat the issue; lest one issue become many, or a small problem become a significant problem. 

It is clear and promising that medicine is advancing as rapidly as it is. Year after year, more medications and treatments are being developed in the war against all forms of infection, disease, and condition. The progress of change means that consulting a professional for legitimate treatment options becomes all the more necessary. 

Author Bio:
Rajhu S Goraai is a journalist on top news blog. Connect him on Linkedin   


Do you find yourself suddenly in search of a new dentist? Perhaps you suddenly feel the need to see a new one after a bad experience with your previous dentist. Perhaps you have moved across town and don't want a huge commute each day. Perhaps you moved across the country and you just feel unsure of where to even turn because you don't know the area at all. Whatever your reason is, it's time to find you a great oral health dentist that can help your teeth and your gums. Keep reading, as the Schroeder Cosmetic and Family Dentistry experts explain exactly how to do this.

The first step is to find out exactly where you are interested in seeing your dentist. Most people like to choose a dentist that is close to their work. This makes it easy to see them when you need to. If you know that you work long hours and are feeling unsure of how to find the time to go, you also can try looking for a dentist that is near your work. That way you are hopefully able to see them during your lunch break.

Now that you know the area you need to be looking for, it's time to make a list of the potential dental practices that you would be interested in seeing. You can look online and Google some options. If you have a friend, family member, or coworker in your area that may be able to help, you can also ask them for some advice and find out if they like who they are going to. If they do, you may want to make a note of that person as a great option. If you don't know anyone, that's okay, you can always just stick to looking up options online and learning more about them there.

Once you have some options laid out, it's time to learn more about them. You want to head to their website to get some of your questions answered first. On the website, most dental practices typically tell you the insurances that the dental practice has. If they have a new patient special, they also may put it on here. Finally, you can just look around the website to learn more about the dentist, the other staff members, and some more about what they specialize in.

You also want to check out reviews about the different dental practices. You can look this up on Google, you can find their Facebook page and check reviews, and you can head over to their Yelp page. This will allow you to read different experiences from past and current patients. If one has consistently bad reviews and some are rubbing you the wrong way, you may want to cross that company off your list as you don't want to have a bad experience. If one has wonderful reviews and everyone seems to be so happy, you may want to put an extra star by that dental practice name so that you remember to learn more about them and remember you have liked them before.

Once you have narrowed your list down a little more and learned more about each dental practice, you will want to write down questions that you still have for each practice. Once you have done that, you can call them and ask them. You will want to ask any lingering questions you have about insurance. If you don't have dental insurance, you can ask if they have any all cash discounts or any payment plans for people without insurance. You can ask them what the dentist specializes in. If you have a dental issue that you know you need to take care of at some point, you can ask them if the dentist does that particular item so that you don't need to look for a second dentist in the future. There are so many little things that you can ask to answer your questions and make you feel comfortable.

You also want to look up the hours of the dental practice. If you work long days and don't get any weekdays off, find out if they take lunch off or if they see patients. There's no use in falling in love with a dental practice and finding out there's no way you can see them with your schedule.

Finally, you want to find out if there is a long wait to get an appointment. If you have not seen a dentist in a while and are due or if something is bothering you inside your mouth, you will want to see a dentist as quickly as possible. This means if the dental practice has a couple of weeks waiting period, you will want to look elsewhere.

Never feel silly asking a lot of questions. You want to ensure you are in good hands. The more you go to a dentist the more comfortable you start to feel. If you can find a dentist that you would like for the long-term, that will be a lot better and easier for you.

As you can see, there are quite a few things that go into finding a good oral health dentist. Make sure that you take your time to look up some great options and learn more about them so that you have a lot better chances of being happy with the outcome. We hope this list helped and you are on your way to a positive dental experience.