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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




Complementary Reading


Keratosis Pilaris is also known as “chicken skin” and this problem is more often seen on your arms or legs. It is a common skin condition and many people are affected by this problem.

There are different types of treatments available for keratosis pilaris. There are some natural treatments available which will help you to get immediate relief and eliminate this problem from your life. Let’s find out what natural treatments you have for keratosis pilaris.

Gentle exfoliation

you can gently exfoliate using sea salt. It is possible to remove dead skin and unplug the hair follicles in your body through the process of gentle exfoliation. It will not irritate your skin and aggravate the problem. Sea salt is a natural and gentle exfoliator and it has anti-inflammatory properties which will sooth the skin. It will also remove your dead skin cells and maintain the moisture levels.

Mix 2 teaspoons of sea salt and 4 teaspoons of raw honey to make your own home-made scrub. Honey is important because it is a natural source of skin boosting nutrients and acids and it works as a natural moisturizer. Apply the mixture on the affected area and rub it on the skin gently after which keep it there for 15 minutes. Then rinse with warm water. You can make a home-made body scrub by using sea salt, honey, coconut oil, and jojoba oil.

Moisturize every day

moisturizing your skin is very important and you need to do it every day. It is more important if you’re suffering from keratosis pilaris. For moisturization, you can use a natural and non-irritating product. If moisturization is done along with dry brushing, it will be more beneficial for the patients. Apply a natural moisturizer like avocado to the affected area. That will reduce inflammation and will also hydrate the affected area. Your skin will feel better once you put avocado on the affected area. Avocado is also good for you because it contains vitamin A. Vitamin A is important for keratosis pilaris patients as it will help you by reducing redness and support skin cells.

There are some other natural moisturizers available which you can put on your skin. They include coconut oil, aloe vera and jojoba oil. Coconut oil is very good for you because it will help you in fighting chronic skin conditions including keratosis pilaris. After taking bath, you can apply coconut oil all over your body because it will keep your skin healthy and will protect you from different types of skin conditions.

Dry brushing

dry brushing will also help you to get rid of keratosis pillar arrays problem naturally. It will help you to unclog pores and at the same time remove dead skin cells. You can take a bristle brush and brush your skin in a long sweeping motions with it. Do not forget to brush any area of your body. Do it on dry skin. While brushing, you need to remember not to irritate your skin because that will cause inflammation. The main objective of dry brushing is to remove the dead skin and unclog hair follicles. Once you complete the brushing, you need to take a shower and then pat dry your skin. You can use a natural oil like coconut oil on the affected area after bathing.

Use mild soaps

if you are suffering from keratosis pilaris, it is very important that you are very careful with the soaps you are using. You should only use nature and, non-toxic and mild soaps. Any other soap may irritate the skin and result in more redness and build up. Use soaps that contain all natural and chemical free ingredients.


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Hair loss may happen because many factors. If you know why you are losing hair, it may be easier for you to find a solution for the problem. Let’s find out and know more about the most common causes of hair loss.

Physical stress

If you have been through any physical stress recently, including surgery, an accident, severe illness, flu or anything similar, it can result in temporary hair loss. Such causes can start a type of hair loss known as telogen effluvium. Your head has a definite life cycle which includes a growth phase, rest phase and shedding phase. If you undergo any stressful event, it can shock the hair cycle and force more hair into the shedding phase. Such losses will be noticeable only 3 to 6 months after the trauma.


If you are suffering from hypothyroidism, you may suffer from hair loss problem. Hypothyroidism happens due to underactive thyroid gland which is located in your neck. It is very critical for your metabolism and growth and development and lack of it will result in hair loss problem for many people.


Pregnancy can be another physical stress which can result in hair loss. It is more commonly seen after the baby has been delivered. The birth process is traumatic and it can result in hair loss.


Heredity can play a big role in deciding whether you will have hair loss problem or not. Female pattern hair loss which is known as androgenic or androgenetic alopecia is very similar to male pattern baldness. If your family has it, it is very likely that you will also have it. Generally women don’t have a receding hairline but their part may widen and they also may have noticeable thinning of hair.

Emotional stress

Many people suffer from hair loss problem because of emotional stress in their lives. Due to different conditions that put emotional stress on people like death of a loved one, divorce, depression, frustration etc. people may start losing hair. If there is a hair problem already existed before the emotional stress, the stress will exacerbate the problem.

Lack of protein

If you are not getting enough protein in your diet, it can also result in hair loss. It happens because your body will start rationing protein by shutting down hair growth. The effect will be seen 2 to 3 months after the reduction in protein happens. So, you need to ensure that you are getting the necessary protein from the important sources like fish, meat and eggs or vegetable protein sources.

More vitamin A

If you are consuming more vitamin A than necessary, then also you may suffer from hair loss problem. You should not consume more than 5000 International Units (IU) of vitamin A every day. If you are consuming any medicine that contains more vitamin A, then also you may suffer from hair loss problem. A vitamin supplement may contain 2500 to 10,000 IU. That is why, you should be very careful.

Male pattern baldness

this is something that happens in case of males. Two out of three men may experience hair loss by age 60 due to male pattern baldness. It is a hair loss which happens due to genes and male sex hormones. This hair loss problem will generally follow a pattern in which the hair recedes at the temples. It is easily recognizable from its classic M shaped hairline. There are different medicines available for this problem which will help you to control this.


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In the past few years, radiology has been one of the best studies in the medical field. This is partially due to the numerous radiological technology advancements that have been observed, especially when it comes to diagnostics and medical therapy. More and more people are considering pursuing a career in radiology, with the total number of practicing radiologists increasing by the tick of the clock. Of course, the demand for these medical specialists is also on the rise as new diagnostic equipment and techniques continue to continue to be introduced.  


Well, if you've considered becoming a practicing radiologist, you will need to be familiar with, and experienced in medical imaging techniques such as MRI, Ultrasound, X-ray, CT-Scan, and others such as fluoroscopy. Better yet, it will take some years of study and training to get there.


In most places, you will need to have some basic education and acquire a bachelor's degree before spending an addition 4 years or so in medical school. In med school, you will cover most of the courses that general physicians cover on top of specific radiology courses. Upon completing medical school, you will then have to apply for a medical internship and residency program, which is where you'll get hands-on practical experience in radiology. So to be specific, you'll be looking for a radiology residency program. This will take another 4 or so years before you can become a fully licensed practicing radiologist.


The medical residency program you take will have a huge impact on your career path. It may also affect how marketable you'll become as a radiologist when you complete your studies. Depending on where you take your residency program, you may have to put in more than the bare minimum in order to be successful.


Here are a few brief tips on picking the best radiology residency program.

The Basic Considerations

Before taking a particular radiology residency program making a few basic considerations will come in handy. For instance, how far is the program? How large is it and what are people saying about the facility? Are their former graduates successful radiologists today? What is the culture at the residency? Perhaps you will want to continue you radiology training in a place that is near home and near your relatives. This is because the period can be a bit challenging without a solid source of income.


Think About Residency Resources

The main essence of attending a radiology residency program is to equip you with the necessary training pertaining to imaging techniques and equipment. But what good is a residency that isn't well equipped with the necessary resources and radiology equipment you should learn to operate? Believe it or not, some programs will send you to other residencies or medical facilities when it comes to using certain equipment so choose wisely.

Consider Research

A radiology residency program may or may not include research. However, it is still an important factor to consider. If you're a more academically oriented person, for instance, you will want to pick a program that includes research. In this case, your research can show that you have a bigger interest in radiology and can benefit you largely academically. On the other hand, if you're more interested in serving the community clinically, there's no harm in picking a residency program that doesn't include research.

Factor In the Fellowships Issue

Fellowships are an important part of a radiologist's training. They are mostly taken by radiology graduates after completing the residency program. Fellowship programs allow you to delve deeper into a particular radiology subspecialty. Musculoskeletal radiology and neuroradiology are good examples or fellowship program subspecialties. Fellowships are usually 1-2 year programs that lead you to become a radiology specialist. Before picking a particular residency program for radiology, consider what the fellowship options are.

Choose a Program That Offers High Clinical Volume

In some of the best radiology residency programs, high clinical volume is the order of the day. A residency that offers a higher volume of patients will mean more work for you to do. The more you get exposed, the better your training becomes. It can be quite frustrating to be in a residency program where an entire shift can be covered by a single resident.


A high-volume residency will also highly likely host a huge number of radiology residents with whom you can share interesting clinical cases and help each other out in learning as you continue your training.


If you are suffering from low libido, it may cause several problems in your family life. However, there are different solutions available for low libido problem. Even the foods that you consume on everyday basis can help you to boost your libido. Let’s find out what are the foods which can help you to increase your libido and get relief from the low libido problem.

Black raspberries

Black raspberries are good for you if you’re suffering from low libido problem. Both the berries and the seeds can help you. So, consume a few of them regularly. They contain phytochemical in a higher level and it can increase your libido and sexual endurance. It can consume 10 black raspberries or a tablespoon of seeds before a few hours before the act and that will help you.


Broccoli is another food which will help you to increase your libido. You can consume it raw, sautéed, cooked or in any other form that you like. It contains high levels of vitamins C, which can increase circulation of blood to different organs. It is already associated with an improved female libido. So, always include broccoli in your vegetable buying list.


Researchers have found that watermelon can help you by boosting your libido. It contains some vital nutrients for sexual health and thereby can improve your sexual life. Yesterday and found that watermelon has ingredients which can deliver Viagra like effects to the human body. It contains a phytonutrient known as citrulline. This nutrient is converted to argenine in the human body which can increase the nitric oxide levels in it. It can relax the blood vessels in a similar way to Viagra and so it can be used for boosting the libido for people who are suffering from low libido problem.


Figs can really help you to boost your libido in a big way. They can stimulate fertility and at the same time can enhance the secretion of pheromones. Both of them are good for increasing the libido in you and your partner. You can consume five figs before the act and see how you can perform in a better way this time.


It is considered as a sex super food. It is versatile and it can be used with different types of ingredients and different way of cooking. You can use it in hot apple cider, and in your tea, add in your favorite dish. In India it has been used for treatment of male sexual dysfunction since ancient times. Scientist in their studies found that clove extracts could increase the sexual activity of normal male rats. It can help you in other ways as well because clove can help you to get rid of bad breath, which can help you by improving your kissing skills. Powdered cloves also good and they can easily go with different types of foods and make them tastier.


Eggs are not only tasty but they are also good for boosting your libido. Whatever way you want to consume this, you can do that and it will deliver the same benefit to you. After a tiring day, few eggs will rev you up so that it can perform when it is necessary. They are high in protein and so they can help you by increasing your stamina. They also contain an amino acid known as L-arginine which can help you to treat heart problems and erectile dysfunction. Adding few eggs to your diet will definitely help you in different ways which include improvement of your general health and your sexual health.


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Pain management clinics help you to treat pain related problems. These clinics differ in their offerings and focus, but many of them work with teams of healthcare providers to help patients get a variety of ways to manage pain. One of the ways to ensure you are served adequately is choosing a pain treatment center that has a history of administering good services, and this can be done in a number of ways.


Here are some of the best ways to find the most reliable pain treatment centers.

Consult your primary care doctor

Your primary care doctor should be your first stop when searching for the right pain treatment center. The reason is that this is a professional who understands the issues you are facing and they will likely have a list of reliable clinics they can refer you to. Medical professionals have connections to other professionals in their area who offer different services, so when looking for a clinic that specializes in pain treatment it would be wise to first talk to your primary care doctor to see what options they have that you can go for. Most of them will refer you to clinics they worked with before, so you are sure you will be getting good services.

Friends and family

Do you have friends and family members who received pain treatment services? These will likely have contacts to professional clinics they trust can help you treat your pain problems. Get in touch with them to see what options they have that can help you get rid of pain. The reason this solution is recommended is that your friends and family will often be honest and will ensure the information you get about the clinic is factual, so when they refer you to a reliable clinic you are sure it is indeed reliable.

Online search tools

If you live in Perth, you can find Perth chiropractic care clinics by searching using online tools. These tools include sites that list doctors in your area and their records as well as area of expertise. You will be able to see the qualifications of different experts as well as the certifications they hold that make them suitable to serve in the field. Reviews from both current and former patients are a perfect place to begin as you are given information about how reliable the professional is when it comes to service delivery.

Communicate with the clinic

Once you get a list of the best clinics to visit for pain treatment, make a point to contact them to see the treatment options they offer as well as the things to expect when you choose the clinic.


KP is a harmless but irritating skin condition which is also known as “chicken skin.” Small red or flesh colored bumps, on the skin, are seen in this problem. They may look very similar to acne and may show up on your arms, cheeks and thighs.

The following tips will help you to get relief from Keratosis pilaris and get rid of it.


If you are suffering from keratosis pilaris, you will need to keep your skin moisturize. This is a problem which is seen in case of dry skin and so keeping your skin more surprised will help you to get rid of it and get immediate relief. The problem may become worse during the winter because at this time that dry, cold air will aggravate the problem. There are different medicines available for this but you can also use coconut oil which is a completely natural treatment option.


Exfoliating your skin is a very essential care which will keep your skin healthy. It is most especially true for people who suffer from KP. You need to remove the dead skin and cleared the clogged hair follicles. That is possible by exfoliating the dead skin. However, while doing that do not use harsh exfoliators or scrub your skin too hard. You’ll find some gentle exfoliant and exfoliating creams. Use them. They generally contain salicylic or glycolic acid and they will help you by smoothing out your skin.

Stop using hot water

If you do not use hot water for taking bath or washing your body parts, you should avoid it completely. If you are using it, you should immediately stop using hot water. If you want to get KP under control, this is a very important step that you need to take. Hot water will dry out your skin and also wash away the natural, protective oils from the body as a result of which your skin will feel tight and itchy. If you do not want to bath with cold water, you can use lukewarm water. It is advisable to use cold water for bathing if you want to preserve the important natural oils and protect your skin.

Watch your food

You will need to watch your food and include some other foods in your diet which will help you by moisturizing your skin from the inside. Such foods include Salmon, walnuts, hemp seeds and flaxseeds. They are good for you because they contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Other foods that you should including a diet are those which contain high level of vitamin A such as liver, carrots, dark leafy greens and sweet potatoes. Some studies found that eating a raw food diet may also help you when you are suffering from keratosis pilaris.

You may also need to eliminate some of the foods from your diet. Some people may have some food intolerance and removing those foods from their diet will help to improve the condition. To do that, you will need to go for proper testing. If you somehow suspect that KP problem in your case is caused by an allergic reaction, you can eliminate some of the foods to see if that will help you.

Stop using soap

If you have dry skin or if you are suffering from KP, you should immediately stop using soap. Soap should not touch the areas affected by KP. Soap can be harsh on sensitive for dry areas and so you should avoid it. There are moisturizing body washes, gentle soaps made for sensitive skins and you can use them instead.


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2. Keratosis Pilaris Revisited
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