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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




Teeth Enamel Created by Scientists Can Regenerate EasilyScientists at Queen Mary University of London have created another answer for develop mineralized substances which could regrow tough tissues like teeth enamel and bone.

Enamel, situated on the external piece of our tooth, is the hardest tissue in the body and makes the tooth function well in our lifetime in the midst of biting power, introduction to acidic foods and beverages and extraordinary temperatures.

This splendid performance comes about because of its organized structure.

However, enamel is not like the other tissues of the body because it cannot regrow once it’s lost, which can bring about pain and tooth loss.

These issues affect more than 50 percent of the population and so, discovering methods to regenerate enamel has been a primary need in dentistry.

Study of Tough Materials

The study, which was published in the journal Nature Communications, recommends this new technique that can make materials with correct accuracy and are like dental enamel.

The materials may be utilized for different dental issues, like tooth decay or teeth sensitivity, otherwise called dentin hypersensitivity.

The scientists noticed that the effortlessness and adaptability of the mineralization method opens chances to treat and recover dental tissues.

For instance, we could enhance acid-resistant bandages that may invade, mineralize, and shield dentinal tubes of human teeth for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

The process that has been created depends on an assigned protein material that can set off and initiate the advancement of apatite nanocrystals at numerous scales, like how these crystals develop when dental enamel is created in our bodies.

This structural action is imperative for the awesome physical properties of dental enamel.

Other Uses

The researchers also noted that the principal purpose in materials science is to study from nature on how to increase valuable substances based on the unique work of molecular building blocks.

The important discovery has the possibility of taking advantage of disordered proteins to manage and mentor the system of mineralisation at more scales.

Through this, they have built up a framework to viably create artificial materials that copy such progressively organized architecture over substantial zones and with the capacity to tune their properties.

The control of the mineralization approach opens the likelihood to make substances with properties that copy particular tough tissues like enamel that are similar to bone and dentin.

Accordingly, the work creates learning to be utilized as a part of regenerative treatment.

Likewise, the investigation additionally introduces bits of knowledge into the functions of protein diseases in human physiology and pathology.

Nearsightedness Can Be Corrected by Noninvasive TechniqueAstigmatism, or nearsightedness, is a developing issue everywhere throughout the world.

There are presently twice the same number of people in the United States and Europe with this condition as there was previously.

In East Asia, 70 to 90 percent of adolescents and more young adults are myopic.

Through some estimates, about 2.5 billion of people around the world may be plagued by myopia by 2020.

Eye glasses and contact lenses are simple solutions; a more perpetual one is corneal refractive surgery.

But, even as corrective surgery has a high cost, it is an invasive approach, and can give rise to more surgical complications, and in rare instances, permanent vision loss.

Likewise, laser-assisted vision correction procedures similar to laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) still utilize ablative science, which will disperse and lead to weakness of the cornea.

Noninvasive Technique of Myopia

Columbia Engineering specialist Sinisa Vukelic has built up another non-invasive procedure to accomplish the correct vision that demonstrates amazing promise.

His approach uses a femtosecond oscillator, a ultrafast laser that conveys pulses of low energy repeatedly for specific and localized adjustment of the biochemical properties of corneal tissue.

The method, which changes the tissue’s macro geometry, is non-surgical and has less symptoms and limitations than those observable in refractive medical procedures.

For example, sufferers with thin corneas, dry eyes, and diverse anomalies can’t have refractive surgery.

The examination, which would bring about treatment for nearsightedness, hyperopia, astigmatism, and sporadic astigmatism, was published recently in Nature Photonics  journal.

The researchers consider this study to be the first to use this laser output treatment for noninvasive alternative treatment of corneal curvature or treatment of other medical problems.

Femtosecond Oscillator

His approach uses a femtosecond oscillator to change biochemical and biomechanical properties of collagenous tissue without causing cell harm and tissue disturbance.

The procedure enables for adequate energy to result in a low-density plasma within the set focal quantity however, it does not deliver adequate energy to cause injury to the tissue within the treatment area.

The focal component to this approach is that the acceptance of low-density plasma realizes the ionization of water molecules inside the cornea.

This ionization creates a reactive oxygen species, a type of unstable molecule that includes oxygen and that readily reacts with other molecules in a cell, which in turn interacts with the collagen fibrils to create chemical bonds, or crosslinks.

The particular presentation of these crosslinks initiates changes in the mechanical properties of the treated corneal tissue.

At the point when this system is utilized in corneal tissue, the crosslinking adjusts the collagen properties in the areas, and this inevitably brings about changes in the aggregate macrostructure of the cornea.

The medicine ionizes the molecules inside the cornea while stopping optical breakdown of the corneal tissue. Given that the procedure is photochemical, it doesn’t upset tissue and the incited changes remain stable.

The specialists commented that what is amazing is that this strategy is simply not restricted to ocular media, but it might be utilized on various collagen-rich tissues.

They feel that this non-invasive strategy has the abilities to manage or reestablish collagenous tissue without creating tissue damage.


Vertigo: A New Type Identified CurrentlyNeurologists have identified a new kind of vertigo with no known cause, according to a study released in the May 2018 issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

With vertigo, individuals have dizziness that may last from minutes to days.

Vertigo can likewise be enhanced by medical conditions, similar to tumors, or conditions which can be mild, such as Meniere’s disease.

However, for some persons, no cause can be determined.

In this new investigation, neurologists have perceived another sort of vertigo where treatment is likewise  potent.

Recurrent Spontaneous Vertigo

According to the researchers, these stipulations may also be problematic to diagnose and fairly debilitating for men and women, so it is interesting to observe this new analysis of a condition that can respond to therapy.

To analyze this new condition, the individual sits in a dark room and the doctor strikes the patient’s head forward after which the ear is shaken on a level plane for around 15 seconds.

At that point the patient opens his or her eyes and a video recording is taken of eye movements.

The neurologists found out that after the test, subjects with this new condition had eye actions called nystagmus that lasted longer than other people.

The new condition is called recurrent spontaneous vertigo with head-shaking nystagmus.

Among 338 people with vertigo without a known reason, 35 had this condition and were involved in the investigation.

The members had attacks of vertigo for two or three times every week to about a year.

They additionally had nausea, vomiting, headache and head movements amid the attacks.

The subjects had been compared with 35 people with different conditions that may cause vertigo, for example, Meniere’s disease, vestibular headache and vestibular neuritis.

The test estimated the time interval, or the time that represents the speed with which the reflexive eye developments can react to change.

For this new condition, the time interval through nystagmus is 12 seconds, while it was six seconds for those with Meniere’s disease and 5 seconds for those with vestibular neuritis and vestibular headache.

Motion Sickness

The neurologists likewise found that people with this new kind of vertigo will probably have serious motion sickness than those with different sorts of vertigo.

Around 20 of the 35 individuals with this new kind of vertigo who had common attacks and serious indications got preventive treatment.

Around 1.33 of these had partial or complete recuperation with the new treatment.

In the lengthy-time period follow-up of 12 years after the first symptoms for 31 participants, 5 had no more attacks, 14 said that their symptoms had increased and only one stated that symptoms had gotten worse.

The specialists said that individuals with this condition can have a hyperactive component in their vestibular procedure that encourages the brain to react to body movement and the environment.

It appears to be likely that the vertigo happens when this unstable system is disturbed by reasons both inside the person’s body or in their environment.


Inaction breeds doubt and fear. Action breeds confidence and courage.
If you want to conquer fear, do not sit home and think about it.
Go out and get busy

Dale Carnegie, U.S. writer and lecturer


Those people lucky enough to even reach the actual start of the road to addiction recovery (many, sadly, never get that far) basically fall into three categories. Firstly, there are those who predominantly sit at home fearing what they consider the inevitable relapse. Secondly, there are those who try to live a more meaningful life, do get out and do stuff, yet still fear the seemingly inevitable relapse. Lastly, there are those who aren't in the first two categories. And that, dear reader, would be me.

As a recovering alcoholic and drug addict approaching a decade of sobriety through abstinence, I now have a far more meaningful life to the one I lived before, and I no longer live in fear. Part of this new life, not its entirety, is that of entrepreneurship – I co-own a highly successful digital marketing agency, employ a host of talented individuals, and together, we keep a smile on the face of our global client list.

Yes, I know about fear. How? Addiction taught me. It was the teacher and the subject combined. Addiction, best studied after the fact, is a halogen lamp shone on a person's soul, where every crack or weak point can be seen in all its imperfection, from your darkest fears to your seemingly elusive hopes, and to what lives inside your true nature and character.

In other words, you learn a lot about yourself. The good and the bad, your hopes and fears, and how they co-exist in all of us. Alcohol and drug rehab was, by far, a damn sight better education than my first time around a college campus, that's for sure.

I'm back where I started now, back in the city of my birth – Medellin, Colombia. You'll have heard of it for sure if you have a Netflix subscription. My parents managed to get us over to southern California when the violence from all sides became even too bad for the average Colombian on the street, and just walking to school felt like you were one of a line of metal ducks at a carnival shooting sideshow.

California was where I grew up, found alcohol (liked it too much), found marijuana (same response from me), ended up addicted to meth and liquor, soon to go on vacation in the biggest hotel (free meals included) they had in the next state over. If you get what I mean. Yes, I've served my time in more ways than one.

We have a lot in common, this city of Medellin and I, like brothers. We have both known fear, we've both grown up considerably in recent years, we're a lot safer to be around, and we've learned. We've learned that you can make fundamental changes for a better way, and you can change your direction with hard work and a new attitude, without fear.

So what did I learn in rehab that taught me to accept my fears, acknowledge them, and then just basically ignore them? Yes, they exist, but so do I, and I will not go back to what I was before. The lessons I learnt there I wish to share with you (recovering addicts are Olympic-standard when it comes to sharing – we'd walk off with the gold every time, and drug-free too!), so here they are. Hopefully, like me, you'll find something to put your entrepreneurial fears into a truer perspective.

Welcome to rehab.

Fear & Anxiety in Entrepreneurship

What exactly is fear? One of our most powerful emotions, fear can strike us either when we are in immediate physical danger, invoking uncontrollable chemical reactions within our bodies, and when there is absolutely no physical danger whatsoever, such as exams, public speaking, a date, or a simple social engagement. Fear is an animal response to a threat that is real or perceived.

Is anxiety different to fear? Yes, in a word. Anxiety is a type of fear generated by the thought of a future threat, rather than in the present moment. We feel fear at certain situations – we feel anxiety as those situations get closer to actually happening. Anxiety is a term used by health professionals to describe a persistent fear that is impacting upon your physical and mental health.

For entrepreneurs like you and me, fear and anxiety normally reside in the act of failing or the prospect of failure. If you feel fearful or seriously anxious, you will experience a number of the following:

  • Rapid heartbeat, often feeling irregular
  • Rapid breathing
  • Physical weakness
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Dizziness
  • Inability to move freely
  • Loss of appetite
  • Hot and cold sweats
  • Dry mouth
  • Muscle tension

Now, for those of you who think rehab and entrepreneurship are worlds apart, let me tell you this. Even though you embark on both with the hope that you'll be successful, there are some people around you that are concerned you will fail. Firstly, it's human nature, and secondly, those people are usually your loved ones. Fact.

However, you must always remember:

People who avoid failure also avoid success

– Robert Kiyosaki, U.S. businessman and author

It's also a little ironic that the symptoms of fear listed above are very similar to a mild case of substance withdrawal.

Conquering Your Fear & Anxiety

Rehab provides you with a number of ways to address these feelings of fear and anxiety. Whether they are actually successful or not is pretty much dependent upon the willingness of the individual to be diligent enough in following them. Additionally, some work better than others for different people, so it's definitely worth taking the time to find out what works best for you. You can also keep a record, a diary if you like, of when you are confronted with fearful situations, what they are, the result, things like that, to refer to later.

Please note (and it's not just because I'm a recovering alcoholic and drug addict): Alcohol and other substances used to get you through any fearful situation are not resolving the actual issue at hand. You will come to rely on them constantly, and I don't need to tell you where that leads. You may also be presenting an unfavorable image to others, ie. clients and staff.

  • Exercise: Part of the holistic approach to addiction rehabilitation, exercise is a proven way of releasing stressful tension in the body. The stronger and fitter you are, the more resilient your body is to the physical symptoms of fear and anxiety.
  • Nutrition: A healthy diet, full of nutritious foods, creates a healthy mind and a healthy body. As one therapist at rehab used to say, Eat well, feel well. Eat c**p, feel c**p.¯ A nutritious diet improves both your mood and your energy levels, essential for the successful entrepreneur.
  • Relaxation: Learn to relax properly. Personally, I practice both yoga and mindfulness, with have proven to be an excellent way of dealing with anything that flies my way after something's hit the fan. The breathing techniques you learn can ground you right in the middle of a situation that is making you fearful. Well worth your time.
  • Freetime: Talking of time, how you make use of yours, away from your entrepreneurial field, is vital in reducing those fearful or anxious feelings. It is another form of relaxation. You may be running around a basketball court at 100mph (my personal favorite use of freetime), or reading your favorite author, it's the same thing. It's using your time exactly how you want to.
  • Support: Never, ever be afraid to ask for help if your fear or anxiety are becoming too much of a problem. Seriously, thinking you can soldier on¯ will, like substance misuse, not resolve the issue at hand. Speak to your physician – it is your physical and mental health, and yours alone.

So, my story, with some helpful advice for other entrepreneurs thrown in – a drug addict and alcoholic, a Colombian immigrant child, an ex-con, and a successful digital marketing entrepreneur and businessman. Most of all, I'm this – I'm another person in addiction recovery, who has lived with a lot of fear in my life, who has acknowledged its existence, and chosen to not let it impact on where I want to go, and how I want to get there.

By understanding the importance of exercise, nutrition, relaxation, freetime, and support, fear and anxiety (and its accompanying symptoms) can be controlled and, furthermore, diminished. What techniques do you use to deal with fear and anxiety? Please feel free to share (Olympic-standard or not) your thoughts with a comment below. Last words? Just breathe like your yogi told you.

Global Warming Limit Could Avert Many Cases of Dengue FeverRestricting global warming to 1.5 C would prevent around 3.3 million instances of Dengue Fever every year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone.

This is as per another investigation from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Another report published within the Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) say that restricting warming as indicated by the UN Paris Agreement would likewise end dengue spread to regions where its rate is presently low.

Global Warming Limit and Dengue

An unnatural warming increase of 3.7C would prompt as much as 7.5 million further cases for each year in this century.

Dengue fever is an infectious disease which is caused by an infection that is spreading through mosquitoes, with signs including fever, fever, muscle pain, headache and joint pain.

It’s endemic to more than one hundred nations, and involves around 390 million individuals globally every year, with an expected 54 million cases in Latin America, the United States and the Caribbean.

Since the mosquitoes that transmit the infection flourish in warm and moist conditions, it’s seen in territories with these atmosphere conditions. There is no cure or vaccine for dengue and it is even deadly.

The specialists remarked that there might be a developing snag about the potential effects of environmental change on human health.

While it is perceived that constraining warming to 1.5C would have benefits for human wellbeing, the extent of the benefits stays obscure.

Decreasing Global Warming

As told by them, this is the essential investigation to show that decreased rates in warming from 2C to 1.5C could have numerous benefits.

The Paris Agreement expects to keep up world-average temperature  below 2C and to seek endeavors to confine it to 1.5 C above preindustrial levels.

The group examined medicinal and lab-confirmed dengue cases in Latin America and utilized models to predict the impacts of warming under exceptional atmosphere situations.

They have found that constraining global warming to 2C would prevent dengue cases by up to 2.8 million cases for each year toward the end of the century contrasted with the present, in which the worldwide temperature ascends by 3.7C.

Decreasing global warming further to 1.5C produces an extra drop in instances of up to half a million every year.

Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, northern Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil had the most increments in dengue cases.

Brazil would profit the most from constraining global warming to 1.5C with up to half a million cases prevented every year by the 2050s and 1.4 million prevented cases for every year by 2100.

The team additionally determined that limiting global warming would additionally restrict the increase in the disease cases closer to areas where incidence is currently low like Paraguay and northern Argentina.


Insomnia May Be a Long-term Side Effect of Stroke, Study FindsStroke patients encounter supported issues with sleep deprivation presumably diminishing their capability to relearn key capacities and putting them at a higher risk for depression, another study in a journal finds.

In the primary investigation of its kind, analysts from the University of Surrey, University of Freiburg, Germany, and the University of Bern, Switzerland, did extensive sleep laboratory testing to look at the brain signs of subjects in the persistent state (no less than a year after stroke) and the present population.

Difficulties in sleep in people who had a stroke have long been reported, however little is known with regards to the brain indicators underlying bad sleep.

It is additionally unclear how individuals sleep inadequately in the night, subsequently prompting drowsiness and tiredness in the day.

Insomnia Study

Utilizing a polysomnogram test, which surveys the brains’ sleeping patterns for more than two nights, scientists have observed that it took stroke sufferers longer to sleep and that they had poorer sleep effectivity, which is the proportion of time invested in sleeping contrasted with the time spent in bed, than the individuals who did not have a stroke.

The sleep latency test also demonstrated that stroke patients will probably rest or sleep in the day to replace during the evening.

They had been more prone  to mistakes in testing than their partners, developing their possibility of failures.

Significantly, scientists established that despite the fact that sleep effectivity is diminished in patients, total sleep between the groups are similar, recommending that diseases in the brain that affect sleep wake control will not cause insomnia.

On the other hand, specialists feel that sleep issues experienced by stroke patients are because of numerous reasons, for example, better psychological pressures, anger and discomfort and also diminished levels of physical activity.

Stroke and Insomnia

According to the researchers, people who have suffered stroke have difficulties with their sleep which is prone to affect their quality of life.

The estimation of sleep in supporting the recovery of sufferers must not be belittled in keeping up physical and  mental health.

They added further that sleep will not be considered for stroke rehabilitation, a limitation that will probably be revisited in time.

Bridling the intensity of good sleep will lead to good quality of life and personal satisfaction.