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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

Complementary Reading

Your meals are beige

If you want to lose stubborn belly fat, you need brightly colored fruits and vegetables because they contain vitamins C which is essential for reducing cortisol. A recent study found that people who eat more red, orange and yellow produce have smaller waist. Instead of eating beige, what and to add more colors to your existing diet? You can do that by adding different colorful fruits and vegetables to your diet. You can add such colorful fruits and vegetables to whatever you are eating.

You are eating a low-fat diet

If you are eating a low-fat diet that may be the reason why you are not losing belly fat. To get rid of belly fat, you need to eat fat or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). High MUFA that can help you to lose one third of your belly fat within a month. They will keep you full for a longer duration and so you will not poor quality, high calorie foods or more foods. Simply having a handful of nuts, a quarter of an avocado or a tablespoon of olive oil will help you to get the necessary MUFA.

You are avoiding the miracle mineral

Magnesium is the miracle mineral when you are trying to lose belly fat. Why is it so important? It can regulate 300 functions in your body. If you consume more magnesium, you will have lower blood sugar and insulin levels. There are some magnesium rich foods available which include bananas, dark leafy greens and soya beans.

You are not sweating

Even though you are exercising, probably in not doing enough. High-intensity interval training or HIIT can help you to get rid of your belly. In them, you use bursts of vigorous activity and then follow it by short periods of rest or gentle activity. It can help you by reducing insulin, triglycerides and cortisol. It will also help you by burning more calories.

You can use the HIIT principal even when you are running or biking. Make it so fast that you cannot talk for two minutes and then slow down for a minute and then repeat the process. If you are lifting weights, lift continuously for few minutes with a 60 seconds break in between.

You are eating from a box

The food that you are consuming comes in a box and you are eating from it. When you consume simple carb such as chips and added sugar in any sweetened drinks, your blood sugar will go up resulting in more insulin in the body. Insulin will and courage your liver to store fat and specifically around your belly.

You need a healthy diet is the belly fat. The processed foods that are available in a ready to eat format often have high amounts of sugar and simple carbs. You need to fill your fuel tank with high quality foods. That will also help you by eliminating hunger so that you do not simply dump anything to satiate your hunger.

Yoga

Yoga can help you to get rid of your belly fat and because you are not practicing it is making it more difficult for you to lose the stubborn belly fat. Menopause related hormonal changes will make it more difficult for you to avoid belly fat. If you are indulge in yoga that can offset the effects. All you need to do is practice an hour-long yoga session three times a week for few weeks and you will see the change in your body.

References

1. See Your Abs – By Best Selling Author & Celebrity Trainer Bruce Krahn
2. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat
3. Overweight, obesity, and weight loss

When you have fatty liver, you have to be very careful about your diet so that you are not adding more fat to your liver. Your diet will become one of the most important factors which will decide whether you will be able to get out of this medical problem or not.

A healthy diet can help you to reduce fatty liver problem.

Fruits and vegetables

If you are suffering from a fatty liver problem, fruits and vegetables are something which you must add to your existing diet. There are important as they provide a big source of valuable nutrients which include vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. Such elements will strengthen your immune system and as a result you will be able to fight infection and diseases. Managing your weight is very important in treatment of fatty liver problem and fruits and vegetables can help you in healthy weight management. They contain high levels of nutrients but lower calories, which is good for you. You need to include them in your diet on a regular basis so as to get the best results. You need the following frozen vegetables in your diet-blueberries, raspberries, oranges, cherries, papaya, grapefruit, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, kale, mustard greens and bell peepers.

Unsaturated fats

You will need unsaturated fats to prevent and to treat existing fatty liver problem. Such unsaturated fats are available in nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils etc. which are good for your heart health, overall physical health and brain function. You just need to consume them in the right amounts. You need to avoid saturated and trans fats which are very commonly available in the deep-fried foods, high-fat dairy products and red meat. You need to avoid them because they can increase the risk of fatty liver problem and if you already have the problem, it can cause more harm to you.

Some of the healthy fat choices that you have are olive oil, walnuts, canola oil, almonds, seeds and avocado. Omega-3 fatty acids are very essential fats for your body and they are available in different types of fishes including salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel etc. They are also available in canola oil and walnuts. You will need to include them in your diet to get the maximum benefit possible. There are important because they help you in absorbing nutrients.

Whole grains

The next important element that will help you to fight fatty liver problem is whole grains. They offer you vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and dietary fibre. It helps in reducing the possibility of heart disease, diabetes and other serious problems. You need a diet rich in low glycemic foods for prevention and treatment of fatty liver problem. You need whole grains like oats, barley, bulger, spelt, Brown or wild rice and rye. Include different varieties of whole grains to your diet and get the maximum nutritional benefits possible. Whole grains are good for you because they are low glycemic and nutritious sources of carbohydrate. To avoid fat liver problem and to treat fatty liver, you will need to eliminate processed and enriched carbohydrate foods like white bread, processed snack foods and sugary cereals.

Lean proteins

You will need lean proteins from different sources when you want to prevent or treat fatty liver problem. Such lean proteins sources include tofu and lean poultry. You will need to replace pork and beef with lean proteins. If you continue eating pork and beef, they may strain your liver and at the same time they result in more a compilation of liver fats.

References
1. Fatty Liver Guide
2. Fatty liver – nonalcoholic
3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

The following process will help you to get the bikini body you’ve always wanted.

Set goals

If you want to get the best bikini body for yourself, you will need to set goals accordingly. Related decide where you want to improve and that will decide what you need to do regarding diet and exercise. Do you want to lose weight? Do you want to gain muscle? Do you want to tone up? Depending on your goals, the process of moving forward will be different.

Take measurements and weigh yourself. Write it down. This will help you to track your progress. Also take a before picture because it will help you to see the results for yourself. It will also keep you motivated to push yourself further and do better.

Also by the bikini you want to wear and hang it up somewhere where you can see it every day. This will work as a motivator for you. It will keep you reminding why you are doing what you are doing now. It will also keep you motivated and keep going when you want to give up.

Eating healthy

In the second step, you will need to ensure that you are eating healthy. You need to make some changes to your existing diet and may need to add something more to it.

You will need to reduce your calorie intake if you are trying to lose weight. Exercising regularly will help you but it alone cannot help you to lose weight. You need to eat lots of vegetables and fruits. They have loss of vitamins and minerals and they will keep you energized throughout the day. They will also keep you feel full without adding too many calories to your body. You will need more leafy green vegetables and non-starchy vegetables. Few pieces of fruits everyday will help you to get the necessary benefits you need. Include lean proteins such as turkey, chicken and fish to your diet. They will provide you with the necessary protein without adding too much fat. For people who are vegetarian, tofu, veggie burgers, tempeh and eggs do the same.

Also do not forward to drink at least eight glasses of water every day because of the many benefits it has to offer to you. Immediately reduce your sugar consumption and avoid this sugary foods.

Exercise

Depending on your goal, the exercise that you need to perform everyday will vary a lot. You can start with performing aerobic exercises such as 30 minutes of cardio few times a week. You need to find exercises which you love and enjoy doing it. It may be necessary for you to join an exercise class a gym because that will keep you motivated to continue working out. Friends you meet in the gym may help you to keep going when it becomes difficult for you. Focus on your upper body, abs and legs.

Make some simple lifestyle changes

Without making some simple lifestyle changes it may not be possible for you to get your bikini body. This simple changes to your existing lifestyle will ensure that you are getting the necessary elements which will help you to reduce weight and fat and get more lean muscles. Some changes in your existing lifestyle will also ensure that you have a more active daily routine.

Toning up

Different types of physical activities and exercises will help you to tone up your body. Yoga, pilates and other total body toning exercises will help you to ensure that your muscles are properly toned. These exercises will also help you to improve your flexibility and posture.

References

1. The Tsc Heart Of A Champion Training & Nutrition Program
2. Body Image
3. Women's Health

8

It is possible to overcome binge eating with two types of strategies-long-term strategies and short-term strategies. Let’s find out how you can stop your binge eating disorder.

Long-term strategies

Learn your triggers

To stop binge eating, you will need to know about your triggers. The triggers may be different for different people but if you know about your trigger, it will be easier for you to understand that very soon you are likely to start binge eating. Find out what feelings, moves, relationships, interactions or anything else drive your urge to binge. You can yourself find out about the triggers or a therapist can help you to find. Then you can find a solution for overcoming that trigger so that it cannot send you on a binge eating spree.

Remove temptations

To stop binge eating, you will need to remove the temptations. Do not keep foods that you like in front of you. When you remove temptations, the possibility and frequency of binge eating will slowly decline.

Follow a regular meal plan

If you are on a regular pattern of eating, you are less likely to go for binge eating. If you are trying to lose weight by dietary restriction or undereating, you are likely to feel hungrier and that may result in binge eating. Following a regular meal plan will ensure that you are not undereating and you are not hungry.

Health is more important than weight

Your focus should be on your health and not on your weight. If you are healthy, you don’t have to worry about being little overweight. Whenever you focus more on your weight, you will try to lose some weight by any means and that can result in binge eating disorder. If you have a desire to lose weight, that can trap you in a bingeing vicious cycle.

Short-term strategies

Know about the danger zone

To stop binge eating, you will need to understand that you are in danger zone and you need to find ways to get out of there. You will need to notice the urge to binge eat, and then only you can do something about it. When you are a very of your moods and anxieties, it will help you to stop yourself from eating more.

Distract

If you can distract yourself, you can delay the urge to binge eat. To go to behavior from urge, you need some time and if you can distract yourself during this time, you will be able to delay your behavior of binge eating. If you can delay it for some time, the possibility of avoiding it will increase to a great extent. You can distract yourself by counting breaths, taking a walk, listening to music, calling a friend or doing anything else which will help you to take your mind away from the food.

Change your mindset

Once you know how to notice the urge of binge eating, find out a few ways to change your mindset. Keeping a list of your top goals and values will definitely help you. These values and goals will help you to restrict, prevent or delay the urge to binge eat. You can also question yourself based on the values and goals to find out whether binge eating will be consistent with them or not.

Stop binge in progress

It is possible to stop a bingeing progress. Even if you have started it, it does not mean that you will have to continue doing it once you realize what you are doing.

References
1. The Wake Up Thinner Program
2. Binge Eating Disorder
3. Eating Disorders Among Adults

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Women dealing with premature wrinkles were the ones who usually opted for plastic surgery. It is no secret that the world judges a woman based on her appearance and age, so it made sense that women searched for a solution. This is on top of the fact that facial plastic surgery also helps fight the depression that is sometimes brought upon a woman dealing with facial issues. The strange thing is younger women are now looking for the same thing.

What does Botox do for Younger Women?

No doubt that botox made big differences for some people who were suffering from premature aging. Women have had to deal with a judgmental world for a long time, and botox helped them with that. Ageism is a real problem that probably hurt a lot of women in the past. Some may have seen job promotions pass them by while others might not have been hired all because of this problem. The issue has not gone away, but it has been softened with botox.

It seems a little strange that younger women are becoming interested in cosmetic treatments. Some of these women probably do not have premature lines or wrinkles to worry about, yet they are now interested in cosmetic procedures such as the botox injections in Canberra offered by Cosmos Clinic.

The truth is that it actually offers a lot more than could be imagined to some younger women. For one, it may help the young perfectionist. This is a person who is quite critical of herself and usually deals with a lot of anxiety. Any noticeable change might send this person into a spiral of anxiety so, in essence, a little plastic surgery may relax a person like this.

There is another group of women who are just interested in the prevention and rejuvenation that botox can offer young women. Young women who are interested in this have begun to call this type of cosmetic treatment prejuvenation. It usually combines both fillers and botox, which should help prevent aging before it even begins.

The reason that prevention matters is because reversing lines and premature wrinkles is a lot harder than preventing the issue from ever damaging the skin. The good thing about prejuvenation is that it does not have to be aggressive, and it continues to let the skin look as natural as it should be.

Some are also pointing out that younger women are interested in staying young longer due to social platforms like Instagram among many others. It is clear that what makes social media so addictive is the ability to showcase personal beauty at its peak, which is driving younger women to worry about self-beautifying themselves.

It should also be pointed out that plastic surgery is now more accessible. This means that young people, even the ones dealing with financial issues, have more options such as financing. No doubt that having more options made way for this popularity spike that plastic surgery is experiencing as of late.

It is true that prejuvenation is quite new, and not everyone is on board just yet, but that does not mean it will not continue to grow. Women are not naive about the ways of the world and understand that they are judged based on appearance. Age can make a women seem weaker among other things. These are not traits that the modern woman wants to be associated with. There may come a time with ageism is no longer an issue, but society has yet to evolve. Women still have to live in these times and have successful lives.

Extrication

In order to improve the outcomes for patients who have experienced traumatic injury, a pioneering research is being carried out by the researchers from the University of Birmingham. This study is a part of the major £10 million study is known as the ˜Golden Hour' study.

The Golden Hour study was launched in the year 2014 and is carried out over a four year period. The term ˜golden Hour' refers to the first 60 minutes from the time a person suffers a traumatic injury. This time is very crucial as a prompt and right medical analysis and treatment during this period is an important factor for the patient's survival. The aim of the study is to understand what happens to the immune system in this 60 minutes window. Insights into the happening can play a big role in managing such cases.

The study is being led by Professor Janet Lord and Professor Tony Belli from the University of Birmingham’s Institute of Inflammation and Ageing and the National Institute for Health Research Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre (NIHR SRMRC) respectively. A key piece of the research of the ongoing Golden Hour study was published in PLOS Medicine on 18th July 2017.

It is seen that the major and instant cause of the death after a severe trauma is hemorrhage remarked Lead author Dr. Jon Hazeldine, a Research Fellow at the University of Birmingham However, in some cases where the victim dies later complications like multi-organ dysfunction or sepsis are the causes of death. It means that the individual’s immune response to injury greatly influences the chances of developing these fatal conditions.

He added that in most studies that have studied the immune response to trauma, blood samples taken after hospital admission have been analyzed. So, there is no information about the immune status of the patient right after the injury and how it might have any influence on the outcome for the patient.

Dr Hazeldine further adds that the aim of the study is to comprehensively assess the ultra-early immune response to trauma. The exploratory analysis then needs to be carried out to find its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes.

An important part of the research was the blood sampling and analysis operation working 24 hours a day in collaboration with West Midlands Ambulance Service and Midlands Air Ambulance. Paramedics who are specially trained in taking blood samples from such patients are immediately sent to the scene of such major traumas.

Professor Janet Lord explained that even before this study, it was known that a few days after major trauma the immune system is much suppressed, and it makes the patient very prone to infections and sepsis. However, it wasn't known how soon it happens. This study has now revealed that the changes to the immune system happen fast. In fact, within minutes of a traumatic injury, the levels of many immune cells and molecules are altered in the patient. It is also interesting to note that in some cases these immune cells and molecules increase than normal and in some cases they decrease.

Professor Janet Lord added that it was known that after a traumatic injury activation of the immune system happened and also compensatory response starts in a bid to dampen down the inflammation. This study showed us that these processes don't happen sequentially but simultaneously.

As a part of their study, the composition and function of immune cells and concentrations of cytokines, in blood samples acquired within one hour from 89 adults who suffered traumatic injuries was analyzed. Again blood samples were taken at four to 12 hours and 48 to 72 hours post-injury and were analyzed.

Professor Tony Belli explained that it was seen that many characteristics of the immune reaction observed in the first hour were different from those seen at later time points. Also, a link between natural killer T cell numbers in the hour after trauma and the eventual development of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes was found.

The researchers are now hopeful that their findings will help them to develop a test to determine which patients have a response that makes them likely to get to sepsis or multiorgan failure. This test will help in identifying such cases so that treatment can be started early.

References

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-07-complex-immune-hour-traumatic-injury.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170718142919.htm