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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




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The importance of sleep in your fitness workout cannot be overstressed. Whether you are simply keeping fit or are an Olympic athlete, restful sleep is critical to your performance. In fact, the four major factors involved in fitness are nutrition, exercise and training “ and sleep!


Why is sleep so important? Can't people rest to recover between training exercises rather than go to sleep?


Sure they can, and near enough all do. However, why sleep? The answer to that is a simple one. During exercise, your muscle cells break down as does your nervous system. During restful sleep, these rebuild again so you are fit again for another day of work. You must sleep at the right time and FOR the right time!


Importance of Sleep: Four Phases of Sleep


To explain this, consider the various phases of sleep:


  • Phase 1: This when you are tired and just start to sleep. You are near to being awake but not quite. If you tend to read at night, maybe you nod off then awake with a jolt and continue reading. That is the near sleep stage. Had you not woken up you would have then gone into:
  • Phase 2: You have now started to sleep rather that just doze. You then enter:
  • Phase 3: A deeper form of sleep that begins to restore you mentally and physically.  Finally, you enter:
  • Phase 4: This is deep REM sleep where most of your dreaming takes place.  This takes place after about 90 minutes.
  • You then repeat this cycle though the night until you wake up.


Note:  If you tend to work at night, then the same phases occur when you are normally asleep.


It is during Phases 3 and 4 that your brain and muscles recover the rigors of the previous day.  Most of the growth hormone that aids your recovery is created when you sleep. This helps to grow your muscles, helps you lose fat and reduces your feelings of hunger. The less sleep you get, the greater the levels of the hormone that generate the need to eat more fuel  – or ˜hunger'.


Choosing a Mattress that Suits you is Critical


The importance of good-quality sleep to your fitness workout cannot be overemphasized. All professional athletes, sportsmen and sportswomen will tell you this.  Exercise as much as you wish, but if you need caffeine to keep you awake then you are not getting enough sleep “ or the right quality of sleep.


One way of helping you get the best quality of sleep possible is to purchase the most suitable mattress for your needs. A great pillow and a great mattress will give you the best chance of the high quality of sleep you need. Never ignore the importance of sleep in your fitness workout. Choosing a mattress that suits you is critical if you want your fitness workout to achieve what you want it to.  There are many options in the mattresses and beds, some people like adjustable beds to change the way they can position their body.


90-Minute Cycles of Sleep


These phases are believed to take place in 90 minute cycles, and it during Phases 1 & 2 that you are liable to waken up during the night if disturbed. It is well worthwhile for athletes, bodybuilders or those that simply work out to keep fit to make sure they have a mattress that helps them sleep.  Not just sleep, but to sleep throughout all the phases.


You must  allow your brain and your body to recover from the day's exercise.  If you don't, then you will feel a lack of energy and your body will give out earlier in your workout. You will not feel a desire to work so hard and you will increase your chance of injury.  Before you have gone through your regular workout schedule, you will be liable to stop though fatigue. All for a lack of proper sleep.


You can take energy boosters such as strong coffee or Red Bull as a quick fix for sleep-related fatigue, but these are no more than a quick fix to keep you awake and they don't address the main issue. That is a lack of tissue repair, muscle building and brain relaxation. You have to think of what sleep does for you, rather than try to keep your energy levels up artificially.


Importance of Sleep in your Fitness Workout


If you consume protein during the day, whether chicken or a protein drink, exercise ultimately causes that protein to be converted to muscle tissue. However, you don't see your muscles getting larger soon after you consume it.  Why? Because it takes time for your digestive system to break that protein down into carbohydrates and amino acids!


While you are in the later phases of your 90-minute sleep cycle,  your metabolism will use the amino acids from the protein you consumed to generate new muscle tissue and repair damaged muscles.  The more you exercise, the faster your blood flows and the faster protein is created from the amino acids and carbohydrates in your blood.


During the later phases of deep sleep, the growth hormone produced in that phase repairs damaged muscle tissue. New amino acids generate more proteins to aid this and create new muscle tissue.  This combination of damage repair and new muscle tissue builds your muscles and makes you stronger. It also makes you feel less tired. During this period your brain also repairs itself from the previous day's work.


Meta Description (Optional):  The importance of sleep in your fitness workout is critical. Learn why the various sleep phases help you get the best from your workout and keep you fresh next day.


You can get rid of scars right at home by using simple home and natural remedies. Let’s find out how you can remove scar easy from different parts of your body.


If you apply lemon juice to the scar, you will be able to remove the scar. Lemon is useful because it contains alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) which can remove dead skin cells, increase the elasticity of the skin and helping new cells growth. It works as a natural bleach and so it can lighten scars.

Dip a cotton ball in lemon juice and rabbit on the scarred area. Leave it as it is for 10 minutes and then wash off with water.


Honey is well-known for its antiseptic properties, but it can also help you to fade scars. It’s a natural moisturizer and so it can help you to effectively treat wounds and help in tissue regeneration.

You can mix 2 tablespoons of raw honey with 2 tablespoon baking soda and massage the scar for three minutes. Place a hot washcloth in the area until it is cool.

You can mix 2 tablespoons of raw honey with 1 tablespoon baking soda to make an exfoliating wash, which will help you to make acne scars fade.

Onion extract

Onion extract is also very useful in removing scar marks. It is an anti-inflammatory. Besides, it can inhibit the production of collagen in a scar, which will make it less noticeable. You will find onion extract in gel forms. However, it may take a few months to see noticeable differences.

Aloe Vera Gel

Aloe vera gel is useful in removing a scar. It has anti-inflammatory properties, which will reduce skin irritations. It will also remove dead skin from wounds. Aloe vera is useful because it will repair your damaged skin cells and will help in new skin cells production.

Aloe vera is available in different forms such as ointments, gels, and lotions. You can apply and massage aloe vera directly on the scar tissue. Do that several times a day.

Indian gooseberry

Indian gooseberry is another fruit that will help you to remove scars from your body. It is commonly known as “amla,” and it is very popular. If there is a scar, you can immediately apply it and it will inhibit the formation of scar tissue. It is available in powder or paste form. You can also make a paste at home by mixing the powder with water or olive oil. Once you have the paste, massage it into your skin on the affected area.

Cucumber paste

This is a completely natural and effective treatment against scar. It will also make your skin softer and supple. Since they are not very acidic, they are not going to cause any skin irritations, which is another advantage.

You can make your own cucumber paste. Peel the cucumber, remove the seeds and blend it. Put 4 to 5 mint leaves in the blender along with cucumber. Beat an egg white separately and at that to the mix and you paste is ready. You can apply the paste on the scar and leave it as it is for 20 minutes. After the time, wash it off with cool water and dry the area.

Olive oil

If you massage olive oil over your scar, it will help you to remove the scar. Olive oil is rich in vitamins K and E and there are good for your skin. Especially need virgin olive oil because it has more antioxidants and also has high acidity level which will help you to lighten the scars easily.


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Is worrying getting you down? We're all familiar with feelings of anxiety and worry, but when they start interrupting the day and making it hard to achieve what you want to achieve, it can be difficult to just ˜switch it off'. Sometimes you need to put in place a range of things to help support you into feeling better.


Anxiety and constant worry can also make you constantly agitated leading go constant stress as well as feeling anger all the time. Alleviating your constant worry will not only help you improve your Anxiety but also help you manage your anger too.


So we've brought together a list of 9 things that can help you to combat anxiety. And remember, it's often really important to get support from a professional health carer, so make sure you talk to a doctor about managing your anxiety too.


Write down your worries

Have you stopped to identify what it is you're really worried about? While it might seem counter-intuitive to focus on your worries, it can actually be a great way to clear your mind and combat negative emotions.


Start practicing mindfulness

Mindfulness is the practice of being completely immersed in the present moment. Take time out, sit somewhere quiet, and focus on the hear and now. Acknowledge the worries than enter your mind, then let them drift away and refocus on the moment. Meditation or a nature walk can be a great way to do this too.


Accept uncertainty

Worry often causes you to fixate on things. And often these things are possibilities, or unknowns, that make you feel uncertain about the future. If you can recognise when this is taking over, try to focus on what is actually happening, rather than on what might happen. This is challenging, but if you can master it, it can help reduce your unnecessary worry.


Challenge Worrying Thoughts

As we talked about above, chronic worry can have you worrying about worst-case-scenarios, even if they're really unlikely to happen. Just like accepting uncertainty, it can also be really helpful to challenge those worrying thoughts. Trying looking at these situations from different perspectives. What are you really worried will happen? How likely is that to come true? Confronting it like this can help to alleviate worry before it escalates.


Focus on what you can control

Worry tends to build when you can't control something. It's that feeling of uncertainty again. So when you feel it building, try to redirect your thoughts towards something you can control in that moment. Shift your energy into a new task (maybe a simple household chore, or a new work task). Essentially, anything where you're allowing yourself to make decisions and be in control of the outcome.


Set aside some designated worry time, to stop it from seeping into everything

This might sound strange, but it can be helpful to give yourself time to reflect on particular problems, then move on. If you find yourself worrying outside of the time you've designated, make a point of shifting your thinking something else, or jot it down to think about later.


Look after yourself physically

Exercising and eating a healthy diet can go a long way towards helping you feel better. Exercise releases chemicals in your brain that counteract anxiety and low mood, so do your best to incorporate some form of exercise into each day.

Beyond that, giving your brain the right fuels is really important. Try to eat fresh, nutrient-dense foods to contribute to a healthy mind and body.


Talk to someone else

Bottling things up rarely helps, does it? By sharing your worries with a friend or talking to a professional therapist you can have an opportunity to see your worries and fears from a different perspective, and a chance to come across new solutions too. Professional help can be an invaluable support to managing excessive worry.


Managing worry can be really challenging, and when things feel overwhelming it's not always easy to know where to start. This list is designed to give you some practical things to do. And remember, asking for professional support can be a great way to get back to feeling like yourself again.

There are different ways to stop bad breath. You can use them depending on your present condition and the available resources that you have at your disposal. Let’s look at some of the simple ones.

Use a mouth rinse

If a dental problem is the cause of chronic bad breath, a mouth rinse will help you to get rid of it. But it will not cure it. The mouth rinse can only mask the bad breath. In some cases such a rinse can in fact worsen the situation because it may irritate oral tissues. In case of an emergency, you can always rinse the mouth with a mix of water and few drops of peppermint oil. If you have black or green tea, you can rinse your mouth with that because that will also help you to get rid of the bad breath. Green or black tea can eliminate the growth of bacteria in your mouth which is causing the mouth odor.

Avoid dry mouth

Dry mouth is another major reason of bad breaths and so you should try to avoid having a dry mouth. To ensure that, you will need to drink a sufficient amount of water, which is 6 to 8 glasses in a day, drinking water will help you to keep odor under control by washing away the food particles and bacteria from your mouth cavity. If you are suffering from a chronic dry mouth or if you a using any medicines that is causing the dry mouth problem, you should talk to your dentist. There are many over-the-counter saliva substitute available which can help you to keep your mouth wet.

Carrot, celery or apple

If you munch on a carrot or a stick of celery or an Apple, it will help you to get rid of bad breaths. When you eat a snack of crispy, fresh fruits and vegetables, it will increase flow of saliva in your mouth, which will wash away bacteria from your tongue, gums, and teeth. If you are hungry or on a fasting, it is more likely to have bad breath and such snacks can help you to get rid of bad breath caused by hunger or fasting. If you have an anti-stomach, you may suffer from bad breath because acids in the stomach will build up and will cause bad breath.

Go to your dentist

If you are having bad breath, it is likely that you have a dental problem and in that case, it is a wise decision to go visit your dentist. Your dentist will be able to find out what problem you have and will be able to rectify the problem. If you do not have any dental problems or the dentist finds out that the bad breath is caused by a systemic source like an infection, he will refer you to a family physician or a specialist who will be able to find a remedy for the problem.

Sugarless candy or gum

Chewing a sugarless gum or sucking on a sugarless candy will help you to avoid bad breath because they will stimulate saliva flow. The saliva is important because it can wash away food debris and bacteria that ultimately results in bad breath.

Quit smoking

If you want to eliminate bad breath, you will need to quit smoking and avoid tobacco products. Smoking directly contributes to bad breath. If you use tobacco, be careful about it because tobacco will dry out your mouth and will also leave an unpleasant smell which cannot be eliminated even after brushing.


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If we improve your eyesight, it is possible to do that naturally. Let’s find out how you can improve your eyesight naturally.

Eat for a bright eyesight

your diet can help you to have a bright eyesight. The eyes need multiple nutrients for functioning at the optimum level. You will need vitamins A, C, E and minerals such as copper and zinc for better eyesight. You will need antioxidants like beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. They will protect the macula from sun damage.

Such antioxidants are available in dark leafy green vegetables, egg yolks, pumpkin, yellow papers, sweet potatoes, and carrots. You need more yellow and green vegetables for your eyes because they will help you in preventing age-related macular degeneration, which is a leading cause of blindness.

Your diet should also include foods that are rich in sulphur, systeine, and lecithin. They are useful in protecting the lands of your eyes from cataract formation. Garlic, onions, capers, and shallots are some of the excellent sources of such elements.

Anthocyanin-rich grapes, goji berries, and blueberries have certain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which are very important in improving your vision. DHA is a fatty acid and it is generally found in cold water fish such as Salmon, sardines, mackerel, and cod. DHA is very important for your eye health because it provides structural support to cell membranes.

So, the right diet will help you to keep away any eye problem and prevent future problems for you.

Exercise for your eyes

There are several simple exercises available for your eyes which cannot only help you to maintain your eye health but will also help you to keep your eyes strong. If you want to maintain optimal vision and want to keep eye problems at bay, you need to perform these exercises regularly. You can simply perform them first thing in the morning or before bedtime. It is also possible to exercise your eyes whenever your eyes feel fatigued. Daily practice will help you to see the better result within a short time.

Before doing these exercises, you need to ensure that your hands are clean and you are in a relaxed mood.

First of all, warm your eyes. To do that, you need to rub your palms together to create heat. Then place the palms against your eyes and keep it there for 5 to 10 seconds. You will need to repeat this three times.

Now roll your eyes. First look up and then slowly circle 10 times clockwise and then 10 times counterclockwise.

Try to focus on something. Hold a pen at arm's length and then try to focus your eyes on it. Bring the pen closer to your eyes (about 6 inch away from your eyes), and then slowly move it back. Always keep focusing on the pen while doing it. Do this 10 times.

Using your thumb knuckles massage your temple. Do this in small circles 20 times in one direction and then 20 in the other direction.

Also massage the midpoint of the eyebrows using the same procedure. Then massages below the eyes on both sides of the bridge of your nose.

Close your eyes, put your head back and relax for three minutes.

Do these

Ensure that you are getting enough sleep because that is essential for your eye health. While working, give your eyes a break once every hour. If you are working for 15 minutes, spend the next 10 minutes by looking away from the computer and resting your eyes.


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If you want clear, smooth skin, you will need a daily skincare routine. If you get acne, you should be very careful to prevent breakouts and spread and treat the acne problem immediately. It is very important to know ratio skin and keep it hydrated if you really want a clear and smooth skin.

Pick an appropriate cleanser

Skins can be different from dry to oily and anything in between. When you are selecting a cleanser, make sure that it matches your skin type. Take a look at the bottle because the bottle will have information whether the cleanser is for oily skin, dry skin, combination skin or all skin types.

Try to choose a mild cleanser.

Wash your face twice

Make sure to wash your face twice every day. Wash it in the morning and at night. Washing at night is very important because during this time you are removing all the dirt from your face. People who have oily skin, it may be necessary for them to wash it a few times during the day using a face wash so that the pores are not clogged.

Moisturise your skin

If your skin is dry, you need to apply moisturizer. You need to use a facial moisturizer after you wash your face. If you need to put up make-up, it is always better to apply a moisturizer before that. It is important that you choose the right moisturizer for your skin type. There are different moisturizers available for oily, medium skin or dry skin and that is indicated clearly on the label on the bottle.

There are moisturizers which are available with sunscreen and they’re very good for you specially during the summers.

Exfoliate your skin

Your skincare regimen should include exfoliation. Exfoliation will help you to have a smooth, clear skin. However, it should be careful not to exfoliate too much because it can damage your skin. Exfoliate one or two times in a week. If you are having an acne problem, probably you should not exfoliate at that time.

Sometimes you need aggressive exfoliation and for that, there are different chemical exfoliations available. Chemicals can help you to remove the top layer of dead skin. It is a good procedure specially for the oily skin.

Physical exfoliation can also be done where abrasion is done to remove dead skin. Some of the common physical exfoliations are facial scrubs, wash clothes and exfoliation gloves. Micro-dermabrasion is another method of physical exfoliation and it is generally done at a dermatologist’s office.

After exfoliation, you should immediately use moisturizer.

Keeping your skin healthy

It is very important to keep your skin healthy because that’ll help you to have a clear and smooth skin.

It is important to protect your skin from the sun because Sam can damage your skin over time and make it age faster than you’d like it to. To protect your skin from the sun, you can use a daily sunscreen. To avoid the sun you can adjust your timing so that you don’t have to go out during the hottest part of the day. You can also use a hat, pants, sunglasses or a long-sleeved shirt to avoid exposure to the sun. Always use a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30.

Keep yourself hydrated at all times. Your skin health will depend a lot on how much water you are drinking. Women will need 2.2 L of water and men will need 3 L of water every day to keep themselves properly hydrated.



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