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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.

References

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-09/bidm-srn092514.php

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140929153935.htm

Lose Weight Fast: 6 Fruits That Will Help You Lose Weight Effectively

 While fruit is healthy for us, as it is filled with fiber and antioxidants, it additionally contains sugar.

Even though fruit has simple sugar and fiber to slow down absorption into the bloodstream, your body treats it just like any other sugar.

Nutritionits say that even as the sugar from fruit is different in that it brings along fiber, nutrition, and minerals, an excessive amount of sugar in any type can lead to a steep rise in blood sugar levels that’s then followed by a steep crash.

You need to consume just two cups or lesser of fruit (or two medium portions) per day. Or if you’re obsessed about eating fresh fruit, select? Low-sugar fruits? Like these six fruits that are recommended by nutrition experts.

The amount of sugar contained in each fruit is based on a 100 -gram serving. Kiwi, berries like strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries, and grapefruit are tasty alternatives? and ideal for growing in any type of weather. Avocados are low in sugar, too, however high in calories, so just consider about component sizes.

If you love to eat fruit nonstop but are also trying to lose weight, eating bananas, apples, mangoes, pears, and pineapple might be? The effective way for you to lose body fat. Make the switch to those six fruits and see what happens!

  1. Banana

Considered the right pre- or post-exercising snack, bananas are better than other energy bars, which often have abundant sugar and chemical compounds. Although the banana has 27 grams of carbohydrates, the fruit can help avert weight gain because it has 105 calories and 3 grams of fiber. Bananas can also combat muscle cramps, preserve blood flow and prevent acidity. Just try one banana a day.

  1. Apple

An apple a day can help you lose weight more quickly. The news is that consuming simply one apple a day gives the body about 4.4 grams of fiber, which is one-fifth of our daily needs. Apples are a rich source of a potent fiber called pectin. Eating apples or pears before a meal leads to greater weight reduction according to some studies.

  1. Watermelon

Because 90 percent of a watermelon'sbulk is water, it's one of the finest fruits to eat if you're trying to shed pounds. A hundred-gram serving contains about 30 calories. It's a good source of an amino acid known as arginine, which allows fats to burn rapidly. In addition to helping the body stay hydrated, snacking on watermelon will support you in curbing your appetite so that you won't have cravings between meals.

  1. Guava

Guavas are a nutrient-packed, scrumptious, fiber-filled tropical fruit that help satisfy the appetite. They don't have fats and contain much less sugar compared to other fruits apples, oranges and grapes. Packed with nutrients, reach for this low-calorie snack next time you’re hungry.

  1. Grapefruit

This yummy fruit, which is a crossbreed of a pomelo and an orange, is likewise an amazing supply of pectin. It has a tremendous quantity of vitamin C, folic acid and potassium. Pink and red grapefruits are filled with vitamin A and lycopene, a phytochemical that shields arterial walls from damage. Eating half of a grapefruit before meals will make you feel full easily, so that you can consume less food and calories.

  1. Tomato

The tomato is a fruit and not a vegetable. This red fruit is filled with antioxidants and may help get rid of excess water and waste materials in the body. It also fights leptin resistance. Leptin is a type of protein that halts our body from losing weight. Plus, tomatoes are very low in calories; a medium-sized tomato is just 22 calories and a huge one is 33 calories. Tomatoes can also make you feel full, which means that they have high amounts of water, nutrients and fiber.

L-Theanine Can Relieve Anxiety and Promote Good SleepAnxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illnesses in the whole world, affecting million of adults worldwide.

The effects of anxiety may stumble over into each gap of life, and perhaps one of the hardest costs of anxiety is the way it messes with sleep.

Treatment of anxiety problemsor at least symptom-managing methodsis now in-demand.

Mental disparities are complex, multifactorial, and unique, and the way they’re managed must replicate this intricacy.

Whether or not you have debilitating anxiety or are an ocassional worrier, there are a number of easy methods that you are able to do daily to help yourself relax.

One daily habit that you may consider is drinking tea. Tea contains a powerful ingredient called? L-theanine which can sustain you in dealing with anxiety and will help you have a better night’s sleep.

The Benefits Of L-Theanine

Apart from the calming results of the ancient ritual oftea drinking, the tea itself has some definite neurological benefits. There are many studies showing that L-theaninea soothing amino acid in tea, lowers anxiety and enhances relaxation.

L-theanine has been provento pass through the blood-brain barrier, within about half-hour of taking it, and expand alpha-wave brain production the identical brain bandwidth that occurs for the duration of deep rest and meditation.

Meditation is broadly known as a relief for nearly every mind-body ailment, and now you can gain some benefits fast while also enjoying its taste.

L-theaninehas been provento calm out brain waves by relaxing them, growing alpha waves and encouraging relaxation but not producing any drowsiness or sedation, like other anxiolytics are apt to do.

L-theanine seems to have a similar balancing-out outcome on neurotrans mittersreducing the excitatory ones such as glutamate and boosting those that inhibit excitement, such as GABA.

L-theanine advances the production of the significant inhibitory neurotransmitters within the anxiety process: GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid, a chemical created by the brain and used as a natural supplement to bring about good sleep, reinforced mood, and relief from anxiety.

On the other hand, L-theanine has a negative effect on glutamate receptors, thereby reducing and enhancing stable levels of the essential excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which is glutamate.

L-theanine appears to lessen the harm of the sympathetic anxiety response.

This study has shown that L-theanine supplementation can avoid the sudden upward drive in blood pressure andlower the heart rate and salivary immunoglobulin A responses to an acute stress event.

L-theanine is available in green, black, and white teas, with green tea containing the most L-theanine. Green includes small amounts of caffeine,though it also contains healthy catechins and flavonols that offer more health-protecting advantages.

Analyzing The Health Benefits Of CBD Oil

 

Over the years, a large number of companies and researchers have decided to begin researching CBD oil. This is not a coincidence. It has been proven time and time again that CBD oil can be immensely beneficial for a handful of individuals. Whether you're dealing with chronic pain or epilepsy, there is a possibility that CBD oil can help you. And, you won't have to worry about any negative consequences. Just make sure that the oil contains little to no THC and you'll be fine. Below, you'll learn more about the perks of using CBD oil.

Seizures

First and foremost, you should know that CBD oil can potentially help reduce the frequency of seizures. The oil has shown promising results when tested for this specific purpose. This was primarily tested on animal subjects. Nevertheless, the oil's benefits can most likely convert over to humans as well. In fact, the FDA just recently approved a CBD-based drug for this purpose. If you suffer from epilepsy or another seizure inducing condition, you should definitely give CBD a try.

Insomnia

It has also been shown that CBD oil may be helpful for those dealing with insomnia. Little research has been conducted on the subject. Nevertheless, it is believed that CBD oil interacts with the brain and helps relax it. CBD is also known to help the patient deal with their anxiety and worries. With less on your mind at night, you will no doubt be able to achieve a better night’s rest. Those dealing with sleeping problems and insomnia should definitely look into CBD oil a little bit more.

Pain Relief

A lot of people wake up in the morning feeling intense pain. There is a good chance that you're the same. The good news is that there are ways to remedy the problem. CBD oil has shown great results when used for the treatment of chronic pain. It is believed that the chemical is capable of interacting with the brain's receptors. In return, that can help the user alleviate their pain and increase their quality of life. CBD oil is potentially helpful for the treatment of arthritis symptoms, muscle pain, MS pain and even pain linked to spinal cord injuries. If you're able to obtain a medical marijuana card, you should probably try to get a combination of THC and CBD.

That may provide you with even better results. Remember that CBD oil in Utah is readily available so you shouldn't have any trouble accessing the medication.

Neuroprotective Attributes

It is also believed that CBD may possess many neuroprotective characteristics. It is believed that the substance could be beneficial for those suffering from neurodegenerative disorders. During the past few years, researchers have begun research CBD to determine whether or not it could be beneficial for treating strokes, multiple sclerosis and even Alzheimer's. There is no doubt that more research is needed. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the substance could be very beneficial for these purposes. Only time will tell. Nevertheless, CBD could provide help to those that were previously left out in the cold.

Lipoxazolidinone A: New Compound Against Drug-Resistant BacteriaResearchers from North Carolina State University have created an analog of lipoxazolidinone A, a small molecule that’s active towards drug-resistant bacteria such as methcillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

This molecule, a new synthetic compound, could be a treasured chemical substance for studying diverse Gram-positive infections and could have suggestions for future production.

Lipoxazolidinone A is a main product which had been isolated from bacteria dwelling in marine sediments.

It is a secondary metabolite, or a small molecule produced by the microorganism that isn’t key to its existence however is created for a secondary purpose, like protection.

When lipoxazolidinone A was at first isolated, investigators noted that it had action against Gram-positive bacteria, like MRSA.

Lipoxazolidinone A and Drug Resistance

The researchers intended to confirm these results and understand how the molecule’s structure connected to its function; briefly, they wanted to reconstruct the molecule to see what portions were in charge for its anti-microbial features and then possibly support that function.

They used new chemical tools to create lipoxazolidinone A within the lab. They had been armed to verify that its chemical composition harmonized what the initial researchers had designated, then they worked to recognize the portion of the molecule that was accountable for its role against Gram-positive microorganisms.

Their product was a compound with expanded efficiency, JJM-35.

They validated JJM-35 towards a panel of resistant and non-resistant microorganism. When recognized in opposition to MRSA in-vitro, they positioned that the synthesized molecule was more active than the natural product contrary to several bacterial strains.

Moreover, they found that the molecule was most likely to be more powerful towards tough bacterial traces than it was against nonresistant strains.

According to the investigators, anexceptional part of this work was that they documented that these molecules could function by constraining more than one biosynthetic pathways instantly or indirectly. This means that microorganisms could develop resistance to medicines developed from these molecules.

The researchers expectthat JJM-35 and comparable compounds can be used as tools to study different Gram-positive bacteria and deliver a platform for the development of a new classification of anti-infective drugs.

According to them, at this point, they have a chemical framework, a starting piece of the puzzle. All their efforts are now concerned about evaluating the locations of these molecules and their in-vivo efficacy.

They hope is that they are able to construct upon this scaffold to create medications which might be potent towards MRSA and different resistant bacteria.

What Should You Expect When Entering an Addiction Treatment Program?

If you or your family member is seeking treatment for addiction, or substance abuse, with no doubt, you must endeavor to find the most appropriate alcohol rehab treatment facility. On the same token, you might also want to know what to expect.

When choosing a facility to treat addiction, you should select the one accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF). A certified addiction facility will ensure that the needs of your loved person are taken care of with utmost professionalism.

However, that doesn't give you a hint of what happens during your first month of admission as a rehabilitation patient. Let's dive into details.

Diagnosis of the Disease of Addiction

Irrespective of the rehabilitation program you’re enrolled into, you should be given a comprehensive patient evaluation through DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. This is a bio-psychosocial assessment that enables the counselors to determine your initial illness severity and diagnosis. It permits them to recommend specific care placement by utilizing procedure and guidelines dictated by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. During your admission, a counselor should verify each clinical finding, explain your diagnosis, and recommend a suitable therapy and discus-in-depth the level of your care placement.

Basic Details

Upon entering an addiction treatment program, the counselor responsible for your admission will review preliminary information concerning your admission and guide you towards making the right decision about the level of care you deserve. A thorough search of your belongings will be done on admission and upon the staff’s discretion to maintain a drug-free zone. You also receive admission forms including:

Patient's Rights

This critical document upholds your fundamental rights as a human being such as constitutional, civil, and statutory rights. It also gives information about the people who will be there for your care.

Patients Standards Guideline

It’s is an outline of general conduct, behavior, and participation expected of you. These guidelines are designed from practical needs to enable you to have self-discipline and self-respect. These virtues help you to have an interactive and healthy recovery and treatment program.

Nursing Intake

It's a document that displays medical conditions and physical findings that should be attended to immediately.

A withdrawal assessment will be conducted at this stage to establish the patients' withdrawal.
A Standardized Laboratory Test and Urine Drug Screening tests might be carried out as a further concern to measure your medical status and the ability to partake treatment. An analysis known as urine pregnancy test will be carried out on special occasions. Also, an EKG might also suffice if you have cardiac complications or you’re above 50 years.

Program Schedules

Here, they offer a vivid description to you concerning the therapeutic activities you’ll undergo. It acts as a crucial section of your clinical treatment protocol.

History and physical exam

This examination takes place one day after your admission and is by a qualified physician employed by the addiction treatment facility. It's usually a detailed bio-psychosocial assessment that helps the medical and clinical teams to recommend personalized medical assistance and treatment protocols.

In summary, the question what should you expect when entering an Addiction Treatment Program is broad. Every addiction patient has unique needs. An individual rehab facility may have its criteria for admission as well as laid down procedures for treating addiction patients. Our discussion gives an insight into what you should expect to find in a certified rehabilitation Centre.

 

 

Brisk Walking Can Make You Live Longer Speeding up your walking could lengthen your life, according to a study led by researchers from the University of Sydney.

Walking at a usual pace was discovered to be related with a 20% risk reduction for all-cause mortality when likened with walking at a slower rate, as brisk walking was once linked to a risk reduction of 24 percent.

A similar effect was once determined for risk of cardiovascular deaths, with a reduction of 24 percent for walking at a normal pace and 21 percent for brisk walking, as compared to walking at a slow rate.

The protecting effects of brisk walking had been additionally observed to be more recommended in older individuals. Many joggers aged 60 years or older had a 46% risk reduction in deaths from cardiovascular reasons, and brisk walkers have a 53 percent reduction.

Brisk Walking and Mortality

Relating death records with the result of 11 surveys in England and Scotland between 1994 and 2008, wherein subjects defined their walking rates, the investigators then adjusted for reasons like quantity and intensity of all physical activities done, age, sex and body mass index.

Walking rate is connected to all-cause mortality rate, but its thorough role, impartial from the whole physical activity an individual undertakes, has gotten little attention except now, according to the researchers.

While sex and body mass index did not appear to influence outcomes, walking at a normal or rapid rate is related to a vastly lessened chance of all-cause mortality and heart disease. There was no evidence to recommend that walking rate had an impact on cancer mortality.

In view of the findings, the research team is signifying that walking rate should be highlighted in public messages.

According to the researchers, setting apart the outcome of one exact side of physical exercise and working out its probable cause with the risk of premature death is tricky.

If their outcome replicates motive and results, these analyses recommend that walking rate is also a direct way for people to reinforce heart health and risk for untimely mortality — delivering an easy message for public health campaigns to advertise.

Especially in conditions when walking more isn’t practicable due to time pressures or a much less walking-friendly setting, going for brisk walking could also be an excellent substitute to get the body up, one that most people can easily contain into their lives.