Home Authors Posts by Victor Smida

Victor Smida



Burmese python, one of the largest snakes in the world, could hold the secret for new treatments that could prevent or combat human heart disease, U.S. researchers announced, in a study published Thursday in Science, informs AFP .

This reptile, which can measure up to nine meters in length and reach a weight of 90 pounds, able to swallow a deer or an alligator, secret fatty acids whose properties seem to be true miracles of the heart, say researchers University of Colorado at Boulder, the authors conducted on this species of pythons and rats.

According to scientists, the quantities of triglycerides – the main element in the structure of natural fats and oils – were over 50 times higher in blood python, a day after they swallow their prey.

Despite strong growth in body fat level of these snakes, the study authors found no fat deposits in the heart.

In addition, scientists have measured increasing the amount of certain enzymes, called superoxide dismutase, known for her powerful protective effect on heart muscle, including humans.

Once you have determined the chemical composition of blood plasma (fluid component of blood) to python, during digestion, U.S. scientists injected the liquid or a similar substance taken from pythons that had an empty stomach.

After these injections, snakes monitored an increase in cardiac muscle and signs of good cardiac health. The researchers repeated the experiment and the mice and found the same beneficial effects in rodent heart.

“We found that a combination of fatty acids can have beneficial effects on cardiac growth in living organisms,” said Cecilia Riquelme, lead author of the study.

“Now, try to understand the molecular mechanism behind the process and hope that our results will lead to new therapies capable of providing better treatment for human cardiovascular disease,” said Cecilia Riquelme.



Pap Tests Showing A Higher Predictive Value for Endometrial Cancer

American researchers       reveal that Pap tests can detect endometrial cancer, especially endometrial adenocarcinoma, with a  75.8% positive predictive value. They sustain that if Pap smear is showing some obvious malignant cytologic features for endometrial cancer, the pathologist should provide a diagnosis of positive or suspicious, instead of atypical, because this distinction in diagnosis could provide a more sensitive information to the clinicians and they can fallow their patients very carefully. If Pap smear is revealing a false positive result, then the patients could benefit from a proper management.

The Bethesda System 2001 does not recommend the subclassification of atypical endometrial cells because a lack of well-defined criteria. However, researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, have pushed that envelope a bit.

“Our division advocates that if a Pap smear shows obviously malignant cytologic features of endometrial adenocarcinoma, we should provide the diagnosis of positive/suspicious instead of atypical. This distinction could provide clinicians with much more sensible information in terms of how they follow their patients. Although this may carry some false positive results, the patients may benefit from proper management in a timely manner,” presenter Linda Szymanski, DO, pathology resident at Henry Ford Hospital, told Medscape Medical News.

This study was undertaken to determine the value of the Pap test in detecting endometrial pathology and the potential pitfalls of a false positive diagnosis.

The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of 153 patients with a diagnosis suspicious or positive for endometrial adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2011. All selected cases were followed up surgically.

Diagnostic criteria were based on nuclear size, nuclear irregularity, chromatin pattern, presence of nucleoli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and tumor diathesis.

In all, 132 cases (age range, 25 to 95 years) had significant pathologic findings: 116 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma, 14 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, and 2 cases of benign endometrial polyp. There were 21 negative pathology findings (age range, 43 to 83 years).

A second review of the 21 false-positive cases and the 2 benign endometrial polyp cases revealed nuclear hyperchromasia, nucleoli, and cytoplasmic vacuolation, but there was no significant nuclear enlargement or tumor diathesis. Overall, the high-yield cytologic criteria generated a 75.8% PPV for detecting endometrial adenocarcinoma (including all positive and suspicious diagnoses).

“When we eliminated the suspicious diagnosis, we achieved a PPV for outright positive diagnosis of 90%,” said Dr. Szymanski. Despite this success, the researchers say that the Pap test is not an effective screening test for endometrial pathology.

“We learned that when there is a lack of significant nuclear enlargement, we should take a step back. A diagnosis of ‘atypical endometrial cells present’ may be more appropriate than a ‘suspicious or positive’


Avastin Improves Chemo for Refractory HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In cases of refractory HER2-negative breast cancer, adding bevacizumab (Avastin) to common chemotherapies improves progression-free survival, randomized trial data show.

The data are from the RIBBON-2 trial, conducted in women who needed second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Adding bevacizumab to their chemo did not improve their overall survival, as was originally reported several years ago.

But for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-negative metastatic disease, bevacizumab delayed disease progression and so might still “expand the treatment options,” said lead investigator Dr. Adam M. Brufsky of the University of Pittsburgh in an email to Reuters Health.

In an October 11th online paper in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dr. Brufsky and colleagues reported on 684 women who had previously received at least one cytotoxic treatment for local or distant spread of their HER2-negative tumors.

In RIBBON-2 they each received either a capecitabine-, taxane-, gemcitabine-, or vinorelbine-based chemotherapy regimen, and in addition the researchers randomly assigned them 2:1 to receive bevacizumab or placebo.

Median progression-free survival was 7.2 months in the bevacizumab group and 5.1 months in placebo patients, a significant difference. The objective response rate was also better with bevacizumab, although not significantly so (39.5% vs 29.6%).

One year survival rates were similar in the two arms of the study (69.5% vs 66.2%).

The proportion of women who withdrew from the study due to adverse effects was nearly twice as high in the intervention group (13.3% vs 7.2%). Serious adverse events were also more common with bevacizumab (24.5% vs 17.6%). However, there was no difference in the number of treatment-emergent deaths due to adverse events. The most common cause of death was disease progression.

“Taken together,” the investigators conclude, “these data provide a rationale for adding bevacizumab to second-line cytotoxic therapy for patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.”

Bevacizumab, however, has had trouble retaining its approval for metastatic breast cancer in the US.


Bevacizumab initially received accelerated approval in 2008, but its efficacy was questioned and follow-up has not shown a survival improvement. In June of this year a U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel ruled against use of the drug, which reportedly costs about $88,000 per patient per year.

Genentech, which makes the drug for Roche, has appealed and a final decision is expected from the FDA later this year.

Meanwhile, insurers in the U.S., among them Blue Shield of California, have stopped routinely covering new prescriptions for breast cancer patients.

In Europe too, there has been less controversy. Bevacizumab was approved there for use in combination with paclitaxel in 2007. Earlier this year European regulators reversed a previous decision and expanded its use to include administration in combination with capecitabine.

Doctors themselves are divided on the agent, with about 40% of those who responded to a small survey saying that they would continue to use the drug even if the FDA finally rejects it (see Reuters Health report of October 26, 2011).

The study by Dr. Brufsky and colleagues was supported by Genentech of South San Francisco, California. Dr. Brufsky acted in an advisory or consultant capacity but received no compensation from the company. A number of other authors received research funding or are employed by Genentech.


Our Brains Are Mathematical Geniuses

According to Thomas Albright, the director of the Vision Center Laboratory from the Salk Institute, in California, the remote place retreat used by so many people in order to “turn off” their brains is in fact not what it seems. Albright, an expert in the functionality of the visual system explains that the change of scenery makes the brain assess the new information that it receives from the environment.  This includes the assessment of objects, movement and other spatial and temporal properties that the new scenery has.

Sergei Gepshtein, one of the researchers involved in the new study, says that in order to assess these new properties, the brain, can only use a limited amount of neurons. Questions arose around the mechanism that allows the brain to use a limited amount of neurons in an effective way. The research team, consisting of Albright, Gepshtein and Luis Lesmes, a scientist from the Schepens Eye Research Institute, published their new paper in the latest issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Champagne and Cognitive HealthThe expectations of several researchers haven’t been met in their own previous studies. Thus, the premise that a prolonged exposure to a new scenery would mean that the brain would be capable of detecting the most subtle details was disproved. The results obtained in some of the studies are contradictory. These results reveal that there is no correlation between the amount of time spent examining the environment and the amount of details the brain perceives and remembers. According to Albright, the results of the studies have shown four different types of reactions. The prolonged exposure to the environment had no effect for some people, whilst having an important effect on others. However, people also experienced an increased awareness for other details that weren’t subject of the study.

Gepshtein reveals that their study emerged from the asking of a new question, “What happens when you look at the problem of resource allocation from a system’s perspective?”. Due to the fact that the brain has a limited number of neurons that can be assigned to different tasks, only a part of them are used for the assessment of this new scenery. “As a result of allocating resources to a stimulus, you lose sensitivity to other things, which may or may not be familiar”, said Gepshtein. As a conclusion for their new finding, professor Albrigth says that if you want to improve your abilities in one thing, your ability to improve in other domains will diminish.

The published study reveals a mathematical point of view. According to the research team, the computations made by the visual system in order to accomplish the adaptation to a new scenery is very much alike the signal processing method described by Dennis Gabor. He received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1971 for his discovery in the field of signal processing. In their studies, Gabor and other contemporary scientists have shown that the content frequency and location of a signal are interdependent. It’s easy to understand and measure the location of a signal. However, the challenge is to measure its frequency at the same time. This is due to the fact that frequency takes a longer time to be accurately determined. This translates into a compromise: Either you have a precise measurement of the location of the signal, either you get a precise determination of its frequency, but a precise determination of both cannot be accomplished. In 1971, Gabor invented the “Gabor Filter”, which allows for the best measurement for both properties.

According to Gepshtein, the human brain uses a similar method as the Gabor Filter. “In human vision, stimuli are first encoded by neural cells whose response characteristics, called receptive fields, have different sizes”, noted Gepshtein, whilst adding that neural cells with larger receptive fields are more sensitive to the signals with a lower spatial frequency. This acts like a filter in the first stages of the visual pathway. This filter is responsible for the stimuli that are received and the ones that aren’t. A change of scenery leads to a change of filter, thus some of the stimuli that were previously received and analyzed are no longer detected, allowing the reception of other stimuli that were previously undetected. “When you see the entire filter, you discover that the pieces – the gains and losses – add up to a coherent pattern”, concluded Gepshtein. Albright added that this process happens whether or not you are consciously paying attention to the change of scenery. However, the adaptation is not an instantaneous process.


kiat Menang tidak sedikit Perjudian Online di Bandarqq! merubah trik kamu main-main kasino online di Bandarqq online. & kamu bakal mulai sejak menonton duit kamu beralih jadi perihal yg positif. utk menggapai factor ini butuh beberapa trick & trick yg sesuai dalam main judi online.
kamu tak mampu menang dalam perjudian dalam jangka panjang, kamu bakal senantiasa kalah lantaran itu dicurangi pada kamu. Bandarqq itu senantiasa menang. apabila ada orang yg membaca ini berpikir buat sejak mulai berjudi, lupakan saja, sebab kamu dapat dirampok buta apabila kamu berjudi lumayan lama.
Berjudi didesain buat membawa keuntungan dari beberapa orang & itu tentu tak di desain buat beberapa orang utk menang, itu di desain utk kamu kalah, berulang kali. Mereka bahkan melarang orang yg mempunyai kemenangan beruntun yg sah.

Berikut ialah beberapa perihal yg mampu kamu melaksanakan hri ini saat main-main di dominoqq online. perihal ini yg bakal mempunyai resiko positif paling besar kepada kapabilitas kamu buat menarik kemenangan daripada menciptakan deposit tiap-tiap minggu.
Menganalisis detil Mesin Slot
jangan sampai sempat memutar slot video tidak dengan apalagi dulu menonton lebih dekat terhadap tabel pembayaran. Masalahnya yakni kamu memainkan slot ini berdasarkan tema, & itulah yg di harapkan kasino. Mayoritas slot yg kamu mainkan merupakan beberapa permainan dgn upah lebih rendah di kasino.
Ini berarti bahkan bila kamu mencapai hadiah penting, itu tak pass gede utk mengizinkan kamu utk ke luar dari garis-garis dingin itu. Tujuannya di sini yaitu utk menemukan mesin slot yg mempunyai gaji paling atas utk type menang yg sama.
Ini bakal mengijinkan kamu utk meneruskan bantal ke bankroll kamu & mampu ke luar dari goresan dingin tidak dengan mesti laksanakan setoran sepanjang disaat. Bandingkan pembayaran dari tidak sedikit mesin slot & seterusnya mainkan saja mesin yg mempunyai pembayaran tertinggi.

bagaimanakah trick Memenangkan tidak sedikit Perjudian Online di Bandarq?

Menemukan Mesin Slot Pembayaran Tertinggi
Cari mesin slot progresif jikalau sedia. Mesin slot ini gampang ditemukan, mereka bakal mempunyai meteran jackpot eksterior yg jauh lebih tinggi daripada jackpot yg dapat kamu menangkan di slot video yang lain. Bahkan jikalau jackpot dimenangkan hri ini, kepada tengah malam ini dia dapat terisi dgn serentak & pass memuaskan utk diraih.
sebahagian gede pemain mengabaikan slot ini lantaran mereka memang tampak seperti yg lain, kecuali buat jackpot meter di luar. lihat baik-baik mesin-mesin ini, bakal sepadan bersama business ekstra.
argumen slot ini teramat menguntungkan yaitu bahwa mereka seluruh membuka dalam jaringan, maka mereka membawa sebahagian putaran dari banyaknya mesin, yg kepada gilirannya mengijinkan jackpot buat tumbuh dgn cepat.

Mengatur Batas Perjudian
Tetapkan batas kemenangan buat sesi itu & mundur bila kamu menekan angka itu. terlampaui tidak sedikit pemain bersi teguh terlampaui lama sesudah menang gede, & mereka tak cuma mengembalikan seluruh kemenangan itu sebelum mereka mampu menikmatinya, mereka bahkan kehilangan lebih tidak sedikit lagi.
Tujuannya di sini yaitu utk menetapkan batas seputar 20 prosen dari duit kamu, setelah itu berakhir apakah kamu menang atau kalah jumlah itu. kala kamu menang & berakhir, kamu membawa duit dari meja maka kamu dapat menumpuk sesi kemenangan lain besok.
jikalau kamu kehilangan batas, kamu berlangsung menjauh dari kasino online tidak dengan menghabiskan semua duit kamu, & sanggup kembali besok buat main lagi dgn duit kontan di akun Anda.
Ingatlah tip-tips main di Bandarqq online ini diwaktu kamu mengubah trick kamu main-main, kamu dapat mulai sejak menyaksikan lebih tidak sedikit kesempatan utk menumbuhkan duit kamu lebih mudah.


Dalam dunia perjudian ada tidak sedikit factor yg mesti kita pahami bersama baik maka apa yg kita putuskan memang lah mempunyai keuntungan yg maksimal, dalam main-main judi sendiri terang seluruhnya orang tahu bahwa permainan judi yg ada di internet bukanlah permainan judi yg membutuhkan pengalaman yg lebih dalam, judi bukan cuma soal mempunyai jumlah duit yg tidak sedikit melainkan judi sbg salah satu alat buat melatih kesabaran & lumayan buat membuahkan keuntungan yg pass. Salah satu permainan judi yg paling ternama sampai sekarang ini ini merupakan permainan judi Handicap. Bagi kamu yg sama sekali belum tahu apa itu permainan judi handicap, berikut ini yaitu beberapa type permainan judi yg paling tidak sedikit dimainkan oleh penjudi pemula ataupun penjudi kelas profesional. Seperti judi sbobet handicap, seterusnya judi sbobet mix parlay, judi sbobet odd even sampai over under.

seluruhnya pasaran ini mempunyai kelebihan & kekurangan sendiri, terang sekali bila kelebihannya terletak dari tingkat kesusahan sampai hadiah yg diberikan, sedangkan utk kekurangannya sendiri terletak dari trick permainannya yg kurang dipahami bersama baik oleh sebagain penjudi online. Nah terhadap peluang yg indah ini kami dapat sedikit mengulas beberapa berita yg berhubungan dgn permainan judi sbobet online khususnya utk permainan judi sbobet Handicap, bagi para penjudi pemula yg tetap belum terlampaui paham apa itu permainan judi handicap. mari simak ulasannya di bawah ini & pahami dgn baik seperti apa trik menang main-main judi handicap.

Pengertian judi Handicap, yaitu salah satu tipe permainan judi yg paling tidak sedikit dimainkan oleh para penjudi pemula, argumen mengapa tidak sedikit orang memainkan judi ini sebab pass gampang di pahami & sanggup memberikan keuntungan yg lebih serentak & tidak sedikit. lantaran system permainan dari judi Handicap ini lumayan enteng di pahami, kamu cuma butuh menebak score goal dari hasil kejuaraan antara ke-2 tim. Hasil akhir ini dapat dicocokan dgn prediksi yg kamu memberi, seandainya akhirnya sama maka kamu dapat meraih kemenangan pas bersama nilai taruhan yg telah di pasang. Nah buat petunjuk menang main judi Handicap ini sendiri serta perlu petunjuk, berikut yakni pedoman buat meraih kemenangan main-main judi handicap yg mesti kamu ketahui.
a. Judi Handicap mesti dikuasai bersama baik

Langkah mula-mula yg mesti kamu pahami yaitu permainan judi handicap itu sendiri, bila judi tersebut memang mampu kamu pahami dgn baik maka kemenangan pun akn lebih gampang. Bayangkan bahwa permainan judi ini cuma sekedar menebak angka yg mungkin saja kala ini kamu telah lumayan terlatih dalam menebak angka, jangan sampai ragu buat mencari prediksi angka dari beberapa sumber yg ada seperti internet, alat masaa ataupun dari kabar yg ada di televisi.

b. main-main bersama trik yg sehat

arahan menang dalam main-main judi ialah dgn main dengan cara sehat, jarang sekali penjudi online memang sanggup main judi dengan cara sehat, biasanya dari mereka main asal-asalan atau gila-gilan yg mutlak menghibur. Sebenarnya maksud dari permainan judi sendiri bukan seperti itu. Tujuannya terang buat meraih kemenangan, bagi penjudi yg telah senior maksud dari permainan judi sendiri merupakan investasi jangka panjang. Judi yaitu salah satu perihal yg lumayan menjanjikan apabila di tekuni dgn benar & bukan dijadikan fasilitas mencari keuntungan atau pekerjaan.


Agen bandarqq adalah salah satu agen resmi yg sediakan tidak sedikit type permainan judi di dalamnya. Beberapa permainan judi yg paling ternama yaitu Judi bandarqq yg hingga diwaktu ini lumayan laris dimainkan oleh tidak sedikit player judi online. Bukan tidak dengan argumen mengapa permainan judi ini lumayan tidak sedikit diminati, perdana merupakan seluruhnya pemain meraih peluang utk menang main-main bandar bandarqq, selanjutnya yg ke-2 yakni peluang utk mendapati jackpot jauh lebih agung dgn nilai masing-masing jakcpot 50 ribu utk murni kecil/besar, 200 ribu utk card balak & 6.666.666 utk card 6 Dewa. Itulah mengapa permainan ini tidak sedikit disukai oleh para player. & utk mengulas seluruhnya info itu kami merangkum beberapa argumen mengapa bandarqq jadi games pujaan para player.

Beberapa argumen yg ada di atas yakni argumen yg lumayan mendasari mengapa permainan agen bandarqq jadi salah satu permainan judi paling favorite yg disukai oleh orang-orang. buat kamu yg hendak cobalah main agen bandarqq, mari bergabung dgn agen bandarqq. Disana kamu mampu menemukan tidak sedikit permainan judi tidak cuma judi bandarqq Online, beberapa permainan benar-benar pass susah buat dipahami bersama baik, tapi kamu dapat mendapati kemenangan yg tentu apabila bergabung disana.

Beberapa Kelebihan agen bandarqq
a. Proses Transaksi deposit & tarik dana yg segera tak lebih dari 5 menit telah masuk ke akun anda
b. Membayar kemenangan member berapapun itu, agen judi lain masihlah perhitungkan buat membayar kemenangan member
c. mempunyai CS yg ramah buat melayani tiap-tiap member terkait bersama masalah yg mereka alami

Bagi kamu yg belum terlampaui mengenal seluk beluk permainan judi satu ini. Maka kami dapat menuturkan dengan cara detil seperti apa system permainan bandarqq maka tidak sedikit diminati oleh kalangan penduduk Indonesia bahkan dunia. Nah membahas menyangkut bandarqq sendiri yg mambuat kami tertarik ialah dari sisi permainan yg sanggup dimainkan di mana saja, bahkan utk kala ini kamu dapat menikmati permainan ini cuma dgn memanfaatkan handphone android/ios yg kamu punyai. satu buah inovasi teranyar dari developer penyedia pelayanan perjudian yg berharap para member main-main bersama nyaman & aman.

kepada artikel ini kami cuma dapat memberikan tata cara seperti apa kiat bergabung dgn agen judi bandarqq yg ada di internet, lantaran nyatanya tetap tidak sedikit sekali pemain pemula yg merasa kesusahan baik dalam pilih bandarqq yg mampu diakui & arahan mendaftarnya sendiri. menjadi cepat saja simak ulasannya di bawah ini.
Nah itulah sedikit info berkaitan bandar bandarqq permainan yg paling disukai para player judi. Terimakasih.


Heart defects may be caused by stress during pregnancy, according to study

The latest research reveals that congenital heart defects, some of the most common defects found in newborns, are caused by maternal stress (before and during pregnancy). It seems that maternal stress has consequences on fetal heart development. However, the study results, which were published in the journal Pediatrics, did not show a cause-effect association between maternal stress and congenital heart defects.

Dr. Edward McCabe, senior vice president and medical director of the March of Dimes, said that there are several studies showing an association between heart defects and stress. He said the studies regarding this issue should be continued. Congenital heart defects, some of the most common birth defects in new-borns, include conditions like atrial septal defect, ventricular defect or transposition of vessels. These defects may be surgically resolved after birth if timely discovered and diagnosed by pediatricians. However,  there are situations when these defects do not need surgery or situations when these defects are discovered too late when complications already appeared (pulmonary hypertension or heart failure), and surgery cannot fix them.

Over time there have been incriminated several factors responsible for the occurrence of these congenital heart defects: drugs, alcohol, smoking, radiation, viruses, prematurity. Genetic factors are involved in about 10% of cases of congenital heart defects (Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).

stress during pregnancy


Now researchers conducted a study in which they analyzed 1.8 one million children born in Denmark from 1978 to 2008 to see if congenital heart defects are due to certain factors. Mothers of these children were under stress before or during pregnancy (they lost a close relative at the time of conception or during pregnancy). It was found that women who suffered from stress before or during pregnancy had a slightly higher risk of giving birth to children with congenital heart defects. Study co-author Dr. Jorn Olsen, professor and chairman of the department of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles, said it is possible that these congenital heart defects run in families and that some members might have died because of those conditions.

Olsen explained that animal studies have shown that maternal stress during pregnancy affects embryonic development. He said that maternal stress may influence diet and this could adversely affect embryonic development. Another explanation could be that stress induces changes in DNA child in the womb. “This and other studies tell us to take care of pregnant women who experience severe stressful events shortly before or while they’re pregnant,” Olsen said.


Reseachers uncover new findings about esophageal cancer

A recent study led by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute reveals new findings on esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer whose incidence has increased dramatically in recent years. The research comes with a possible explanation for this alarming increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Statistics show that over the last 30 years the incidence of esophageal cancer increased approximately about 600 times in the United States of America. It is believed that an important risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma is gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease involves the presence of stomach acid into the esophagus, which damages the lining of the esophagus. This condition can sometimes result in Barrett’s esophagus which is a premalignant condition for esophageal cancer.



Adam Bass, MD, of Dana-Farber and the Broad Institute, who is co-senior author of the paper, said that esophageal adenocarcinoma, especially those located at the junction between the esophagus and stomach, was extremely rare 40 years ago but now there are about 15,000 new cases that occur each year in the United States. He pointed out the fact that unfortunately esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis as 5-year survival rate is only 15%. Although the incidence has risen dramatically in recent decades, in terms of treatment there have not been many improvements. Bass explained that the purpose of the study was to find other genetic abnormalities that cause this type of cancer, to find new methods of early diagnosis and more effective treatment.

It is not clear why the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased so much in recent years, although there are several assumptions in this regard. It seems that an important factor in the development of this cancer is obesity, especially in men. It seems that obesity causes increased abdominal pressure which causes  lower esophageal sphincter incontinence.

To find out more about the genetic basis of cancer of the esophagus researchers conducted a study in which they analyzed specific sections of DNA from 149 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, in 15 of these patients researchers sequenced the entire genome. Gad Getz, PhD, of the Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital, co-author of the study, said the study revealed a pattern of DNA changes that has never been seen before. These DNA changes are in fact some mutations that occur in esophageal cells and it seems that these mutations are caused by reflux of stomach acid. “Identifying the mutated genes within these tumors will help us understand the underlying biology of the disease,” said Bass.


 Children at higher risk to resistant staph infections during summer

According to a nationwide study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, there is a specific seasonal tendency of resistant staphylococcal infections in adults and children. It seems that children are at greater risk of staphylococcal infections resistant to antibiotics during the summer, while adults have a greater risk in winter. The study is published in the  American Journal of Epidemiology.

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacteria that is normally found on the skin surface, about 25% of adults being carriers of S. aureus. But under certain conditions (immunosuppression, the presence of other systemic diseases), it can produce a series of superficial or deep, systemic or local infections, which sometimes can be fatal. It should be noted that Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens involved in hospital infections. It is also worth saying that Staphylococcus releases some toxins, so this bacteria can generate not only infections but also intoxications.

staph infections

staph infections

Regarding this seasonal and age preference of treatment-resistant staphylococcal infections, Eili Klein, Ph.D., lead author on the study and a researcher at the Johns Hopkins Center for Advanced Modeling in the Social, Behavioral and Health Sciences, said they do not yet know why this trend occur. However, he believes that excessive use of antibiotics in winter may be the cause. It seems that the strain that infects adults in winter is usually acquired in hospitals and is more resistant to antibiotics. Summer strain of  MRSA ( methicilin resistant Staphilococcus aureus) that occurs especially in children during the summer is often a germ acquired in the community and resistant to fewer antibiotics.

Klein said that excessive prescribing of antibiotics can have negative effects. Antibiotic is quite common in winter, when the incidence of respiratory infections and the common cold is maximum. But inadequate administration of antibiotics to treat upper tract respiratory infections and colds contribute to the development of resistance. In addition, it is already known that antibiotics has no benefit when given to patients with influenza, because flu is given by a virus and not by a bacterium.

Staphylococcus is responsible for a range of infections such as skin infections (such as folliculitis, cellulitis, furuncle, erysipelas), respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, lung abscess), bone infection (osteomyelitis, arthrytis), etc.. These infections are difficult to treat because  Staphylococcus  is one of the germs that easily develops resistance to antibiotics. However, a targeted treatment applied correctly can cure staph infection.