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Dr. Marie Gabrielle Laguna

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Global Warming Limit Could Avert Many Cases of Dengue FeverRestricting global warming to 1.5 C would prevent around 3.3 million instances of Dengue Fever every year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone.

This is as per another investigation from the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Another report published within the Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) say that restricting warming as indicated by the UN Paris Agreement would likewise end dengue spread to regions where its rate is presently low.

Global Warming Limit and Dengue

An unnatural warming increase of 3.7C would prompt as much as 7.5 million further cases for each year in this century.

Dengue fever is an infectious disease which is caused by an infection that is spreading through mosquitoes, with signs including fever, fever, muscle pain, headache and joint pain.

It’s endemic to more than one hundred nations, and involves around 390 million individuals globally every year, with an expected 54 million cases in Latin America, the United States and the Caribbean.

Since the mosquitoes that transmit the infection flourish in warm and moist conditions, it’s seen in territories with these atmosphere conditions. There is no cure or vaccine for dengue and it is even deadly.

The specialists remarked that there might be a developing snag about the potential effects of environmental change on human health.

While it is perceived that constraining warming to 1.5C would have benefits for human wellbeing, the extent of the benefits stays obscure.

Decreasing Global Warming

As told by them, this is the essential investigation to show that decreased rates in warming from 2C to 1.5C could have numerous benefits.

The Paris Agreement expects to keep up world-average temperature  below 2C and to seek endeavors to confine it to 1.5 C above preindustrial levels.

The group examined medicinal and lab-confirmed dengue cases in Latin America and utilized models to predict the impacts of warming under exceptional atmosphere situations.

They have found that constraining global warming to 2C would prevent dengue cases by up to 2.8 million cases for each year toward the end of the century contrasted with the present, in which the worldwide temperature ascends by 3.7C.

Decreasing global warming further to 1.5C produces an extra drop in instances of up to half a million every year.

Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, northern Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil had the most increments in dengue cases.

Brazil would profit the most from constraining global warming to 1.5C with up to half a million cases prevented every year by the 2050s and 1.4 million prevented cases for every year by 2100.

The team additionally determined that limiting global warming would additionally restrict the increase in the disease cases closer to areas where incidence is currently low like Paraguay and northern Argentina.


Insomnia May Be a Long-term Side Effect of Stroke, Study FindsStroke patients encounter supported issues with sleep deprivation presumably diminishing their capability to relearn key capacities and putting them at a higher risk for depression, another study in a journal finds.

In the primary investigation of its kind, analysts from the University of Surrey, University of Freiburg, Germany, and the University of Bern, Switzerland, did extensive sleep laboratory testing to look at the brain signs of subjects in the persistent state (no less than a year after stroke) and the present population.

Difficulties in sleep in people who had a stroke have long been reported, however little is known with regards to the brain indicators underlying bad sleep.

It is additionally unclear how individuals sleep inadequately in the night, subsequently prompting drowsiness and tiredness in the day.

Insomnia Study

Utilizing a polysomnogram test, which surveys the brains’ sleeping patterns for more than two nights, scientists have observed that it took stroke sufferers longer to sleep and that they had poorer sleep effectivity, which is the proportion of time invested in sleeping contrasted with the time spent in bed, than the individuals who did not have a stroke.

The sleep latency test also demonstrated that stroke patients will probably rest or sleep in the day to replace during the evening.

They had been more prone  to mistakes in testing than their partners, developing their possibility of failures.

Significantly, scientists established that despite the fact that sleep effectivity is diminished in patients, total sleep between the groups are similar, recommending that diseases in the brain that affect sleep wake control will not cause insomnia.

On the other hand, specialists feel that sleep issues experienced by stroke patients are because of numerous reasons, for example, better psychological pressures, anger and discomfort and also diminished levels of physical activity.

Stroke and Insomnia

According to the researchers, people who have suffered stroke have difficulties with their sleep which is prone to affect their quality of life.

The estimation of sleep in supporting the recovery of sufferers must not be belittled in keeping up physical and  mental health.

They added further that sleep will not be considered for stroke rehabilitation, a limitation that will probably be revisited in time.

Bridling the intensity of good sleep will lead to good quality of life and personal satisfaction.

Global Pandemics May Be Due to Microorganism CharacteristicsInfectious disease preparedness concentrates predominantly on microorganisms that are used in biological warfare, political environments, and present outbreaks.

This neglects to represent the more serious microorganisms which are not generally known, as per students from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, which were noted in their report of the characteristics of microorganisms with high pandemic capacities.

The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens

This report, “The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens,” launches a system for choosing common microorganisms that may create a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR) and makes procedures for enhancing GCBR readiness.

GCBRs occur when biological agents would suddenly lead to a sudden, general catastrophe that is beyond the powers of governments and private companies to manage.

Not much data about GCBR agents exist, leaving the community to rely on past experiences to guide their preparedness goals.

According to the researchers, health security preparedness desires to be adaptable to new threats and should not be based entirely on historical reports.

A good strategy to this situation will, eventually, help defend against a GCBR event.

To define the discoveries and recommendations of their report, they looked into published writing and surveys on rising infectious disease qualities, the pathogenic nature of microorganisms, and other related points.

They talked with more than 120 specialists from the scholarly community, industry, and government and met a gathering with these authorities to examine about starting assessment of the expertise the staff had accumulated.

The first finding offered within this report outlines the usual traits of a GCBR-level pandemic pathogen.

Its method of transmission, the team has concluded, will be respiratory. It’ll be infectious amid the incubation period, preceding the development of symptoms, or when infected people give slight signs.

Eventually, it will want distinct host factors such as immunocompromise, and further intrinsic microbial pathogenicity traits that can enhance disease spread and illness.

The report additionally clarifies the pandemic capability of different microorganisms, noticing that RNA viruses are the biggest risk.


The team recommends the following strategies:

Readiness against GCBR dangers ought to have a focus on approach with some adaptability.

Old pathogen strategies should not be permanent ideas that stultify considerations on pandemic pathogens.

Improving surveillance of human infections from respiratory-borne RNA viruses should be a greater priority.

A higher accentuation on setting up a particular pipeline of numerous antiviral agents for RNA respiratory infections – both broad spectrum and specific – would include versatility against known GCBR agents. influenza vaccine

Vaccines towards RNA respiratory viruses, including a universal influenza vaccine, should be of priority.

A research agenda for upgrading the treatment of respiratory-spread RNA virus infections must be financed by pharmaceutical associations and medical device firms and sought after by medical centers.

Specific assessment is warranted for respiratory-borne RNA virus studies that could develop pandemic risks.

Pursuing special diagnoses of infectious diseases globally should be routine.



Childhood Insomnia Can Lead to Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels in AdulthoodResearchers found that childhood insomnia have been associated with unhealthy lipid profile results, viewed as elevated levels of LDL.

Sleep has foremost benefits for health, wellbeing and cognitive efficiency.

In her doctoral dissertation, MA Liisa Kuula-Paavola from the University of Helsinki investigated ordinary, non-limited sleep and its effects over a growth span from middle childhood to early adulthood.

Longitudinal analyses revealed that childhood insomnia (a shorter sleep length and irregular sleep during childhood) have been associated with unhealthy lipid profile results, viewed as elevated levels of LDL or bad cholesterol and triglycerides and decreased levels of HDL or good cholesterol in early formative childhood years, especially among girls.

These associations were done while also taking into consideration body mass index and physical activity levels.

Sleep and Body Functioning

The dissertation’s reviews related to cognitive functioning additionally indicated that sleep length is also related to general body functioning, such as the capability to control one’s behavior.

Throughout early life, especially among boys, a shorter sleep period was associated with poorer performance in tests that evaluate body and mental health functioning.

The investigator noted that she observed identical results in young adults, but additionally discovered that later sleep timing and irregular sleep have been associated with weaker trait-like executive functioning, such as self-control and behavioral conduct.

She additionally analyzed the sleep patterns of distinct circadian type phenotypes longitudinally and observed that these adolescents who were always awake differed from the others with regards to sleep timing even at the age of 8.

This suggests long-term stability in sleep patterns.

Sleep and Health

Based on these findings, objectively measured sleep and its timing have longitudinal pathways which are related to future health and well being and may just act as risk factors or as starting reasons for various health-associated effects.

According to the investigator, it is likely that sleep, self-control, and health behaviors are intertwined throughout growth and development.

The study was conducted as a collaboration with researchers from the University of Helsinki’s Sleep and Brain study group and Developmental Psychology research team.









Early Colorectal Cancer Screening Can Benefit Overall HealthColorectal cancer, also referred to as colon cancer or bowel cancer includes cancerous growths within the colon, rectum and appendix.

It’s the third most common tumor and the second reason for death among cancers in the Western countries.

Many colorectal cancers come from adenomatous polyps within the colon.

These mushroom-like growths are typically benign; however, some could become cancerous over time.

Most of the time, the diagnosis of localized colon cancer is through colonoscopy.

New Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer

New guidelines created by the American Cancer Society (ACS) propose screening for colorectal cancer for high-risk adults at age 45, five years earlier than the past recommendation.

The recommendations are created somewhat with respect to an analysis that found an increased occurrence of colorectal cancers within young adults.

Among adults younger than 55 years, there is a 51% expansion in the occurrence of colorectal tumors from the years 1994 to 2014 and a 11 % expansion in deaths from 2005 to 2015.

The investigators said that colorectal cancer frequency has declined consistently during the recent two decades in individuals who are 55 years and older, because of screening that resulted in the removal of polyps.

A present assessment found that adults who were born around 1990 have double the danger of colon cancers and four times the risk of rectal cancer when contrasted with adults who were conceived around 1950, who have the most reduced risk.

Studies suggest that the enhanced hazard for younger individuals will remain as they age.

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal malignancy is the fourth most common cancer. It’s the second reason for cancer deaths. When identified and dealt with early, the five-year survival rate is almost 70%.

As indicated by the researchers, the alternatives for colorectal cancer screening are fecal immunochemical test yearly; extra-sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood test every year; multitarget stool DNA testing every three years; colonoscopy at regular intervals; computed tomography colonoscopy every five years; and flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years.

They added that positive outcomes on non-colonoscopy screening exams should be followed up with colonoscopy.

The guideline team additionally had new strategies to encourage discussions amongst clinicians and patients to enable patients to choose which test is good for them.

Given the confirmation that adults vary in their test inclinations, the specialists trust that screening charges could be increased by underwriting numerous tests without preference.

Folks should have a dialog with their doctors to make a decision on which form of screening is the best for them.


3D Brain Model Can Give Health Insights in The Palm of Your HandA new 3D brain model printing technique allows for faster, better, and more cost-effective models of patient-targeted clinical knowledge for study and diagnosis.

Consider the possibility that you could keep up your very own physical brain model in your palms, which is exactly accurate to every fold.

This was true for Steven Keating, Ph.D., who had a baseball-sized tumor expelled from his cerebrum at age 26 while he was a graduate student in the MIT Media Lab’s Mediated group.

Inquisitive to look at how his mind functioned when the tumor was expelled, and with the objective of translating his diagnosis and pharmaceutical alternatives, Keating accumulated his clinical information and began 3D printing his MRI and CT scans, yet was disappointed that present methodologies had been tedious, lumbering, and neglected to unveil vital components of value.

3D Printing for the Body

Keating at that point related to his group’s teammates, including those from the Wyss Institute at Harvard College, who have been investigating another procedure of 3D printing some biological samples.

A member of the group said that they didn’t know how to utilize their innovation in human life systems until Keating came to them and gave them information.

The result of this cooperation offered another method that enables images from MRI, CT, and many medical scans to be easily and quickly adjusted into body parts with unmistakable components.

One of the associates commented that this makes focused 3D-printed clinical models with a small amount of the work required than the past, accordingly, making 3D printing more open to the clinical field as a gadget for research and analysis.

Imaging tests like MRI and CT scans deliver high-precision pictures as a progression of cuts that reveal the fundamental structures inside the human body.

Thus, they are an invaluable resource for evaluating and diagnosing scientific theories.

3D Printing and Medical Imaging

Most 3D printers construct physical things in a layer-by layer framework, so feeding them layers of medical pictures to make an unrivaled structure is a conspicuous collaboration between the two connected sciences.

In any case, there is a problem: MRI and CT scans create pictures with so much components that the article of interest should be separated from surrounding tissue and changed into networks keeping in mind the end goal to be printed.

This is executed through a very time-consuming method known as segmentation, in which a radiologist manually traces the desired object on each single image slice, which usually contains hundreds of images in a single sample, or an automated thresholding process wherein a computer quickly converts areas that incorporate grayscale pixels into either stable black or stable white pixels, centered on a shade of grey that is chosen to be the threshold between black and white.

In any case, therapeutic imaging consolidates objects which are sporadically formed and needs clear, all around borders; in this way, auto-thresholding or even manual division overstates the measurements of a feature washes out important details.

The new process described by the authors offers clinical specialists a speedy and highly accurate procedure for converting difficult pictures into a format that can be 3D printed easily.

The key lies in printing with dithered bitmaps, a computerized document design in which every pixel of a grayscale picture is changed over into a progression of high contrast pixels, and the thickness of the dark pixels is the thing that characterizes the uncommon shades of gray as opposed to the pixels themselves in different hues.

The scientists trust that their approach will help make 3D printing a more practical tool for tests and judgments, patient instruction, and investigation of the human body.

















Multivitamin Supplements: Are They Really Beneficial to The Body?Probably the most common multivitamin supplements provide no health advantages or damage, according to a study done by researchers at St. Michael’s Hospital and the University of Toronto.

Published within the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, the systematic review of present information and single randomized controlled trials published in English from January 2012 to October 2017 have revealed that multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium and vitamin C, which are the most common dietary supplements, showed no benefits in terms of prevention of cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, stroke or premature deaths.

Usually, multivitamin supplements are taken to add to vitamins and minerals to food.

Multivitamins Study

The analysts asserted that they were stunned to discover some positive results of the most well-known multivitamin supplements that individuals use.

Their appraisals found that if you wish to utilize multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium or vitamin C, it does no harm to the body, however there is no evident advantages either.

One investigation uncovered that B-vitamins with folic acid may decrease cardiovascular disease and stroke. Then, niacin and antioxidants demonstrated little results that would diminish a raised danger of death from any reason.

Vitamin Requirements

These discoveries suggest that individuals ought to know about the supplements they’re taking and ensure they’re essential to the unique nourishment or mineral insufficiencies they have, as per the advice of their doctor.

The team reviewed supplement studies that integrated A, B1, B2, B3 or niacin, B6, B9 or folic acid, C, D and E; and beta-carotene; calcium; iron; zinc; magnesium; and selenium.

The term ‘multivitamin’ on this study was utilized to portray dietary and multivitamin supplements that incorporate most vitamins and minerals, that are taken to supplement general nutrition.

In the absence of large positive data aside from folic acid’s effects of reduced risk of stroke and heart diseases, the investigators said it is most helpful to rely on a healthy weight loss program to get your fill of vitamins and minerals.

The investigators add that to this point, no investigation on supplements has demonstrated an option that is superior to anything that healthy servings of veggies, fruits and nuts.


Influenza A Virus: Key Molecule for Flu Infections Identified After much research, a group has discovered the main receptor molecule that upgrades flu to form into an endemic, conveying a new focus for flu medicines.

Viral infections start when a virus molecule appends to a receptor molecule outwardly of a host cell.

The infection molecule at that point seizes cell machinery to enter the cell and reproduce itself, building up the infection.

The key receptor molecule for the influenza A virus has remained unidentified regardless of many years of research.

Calcium Ions and Influenza Infections

An investigation led by Professor Yusuke Ohba of Hokkaido University has affirmed that adjustments in calcium ions in cells play a fundamental role in flu infections.

This study, published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, the team has learned that the calcium? Channel, a transmembrane protein that makes it possible for calcium? To maneuver throughout the cell membrane, is the important receptor molecule for influenza A virus infections.

Also, treating human cells with calcium channel blockers that are utilized as hypertension drugs, significantly suppressed influenza A infections.

In tests utilizing cultured human cells, the group found that influenza A attaches to the calcium channels on the cell’s surface to trigger an inflow of calcium, which is soon followed by passage of the virus and subsequent infection.

Flattening calcium channels inhibited influenza A virus-induced calcium inflow and virus entry.

They likewise knew that sialic acid on the calcium channel is vital for the virus to attach.

At long last, the group tried calcium channel blockers on influenza A infection utilizing mice.

When they treated the animals with calcium channel blockers intranasally, a large and dose-based reduction within the number of replicated viruses was discovered.

At the point when the creatures had been treated with greater amounts of influenza A, calcium channel blockers immeasurably increased survival and permitted weight recovery of the survivors while the untreated ones died within five days.

According to the researchers, there were cases when the suppressive result of calcium channel blockers on influenza A virus infections was like that of a current anti-flu drug. They anticipate that the interplay between influenza A virus and the calcium channel would be a new and important target for future drug development.


Daily Calorie Requirements: How to Calculate ThemTo shed extra pounds, reap muscle, or maintain your present weight, you should comprehend what number of calories you should be eating in a day.

Not eating enough or eating too much can lead to unwanted weight gain or weight loss, which is why you must know the amount of energy you will be needing in a day.

To better help you reach your fitness pursuits, here is a simple method to calculate your day-to-day caloric intake.

First, you’re going to need to know your weight in kilos. Next, check what your purpose is: weight loss, weight maintenance, or weight gain. From there, pattern it to your goal. The final step is to multiply how so much you weigh by the two numbers given, which can be decided by your purpose and activity levels.

A calorie is an energy unit that your body uses to function every day.

The energy that you devour from foods offers your body some energy.

Everybody’s day by day caloric needs are based on age, height, weight, body mass, gender and action. When you know the best approach to figure your everyday calorie needs, you could outline an eating plan that could help meet your health objectives.

How to Calculate Your Total Calorie Needs

Use an online calculator.

You can figure out your general calorie needs with the wide assortment of accessible online health calculators.

These can be more straightforward to use and considerably less intricate than doing the calculations yourself.

You can find many calculators from many health sites. Ensure you are choosing a dependable website and don’t utilize calculators from blogs or other non-official sites.

Many of those calculators work in the same way. You’ll enter your height, weight, sex, age and physical activity. Have these facts ready while you calculate your requirements.

1. Know your basal metabolic rate or BMR

Your BMR is the number of calories your body needs for proper functioning.  It’s your metabolic rate or the number of calories your body consumes when at rest.

Your body wants a certain number of calories to function normally.

The BMR equation for the normal female is: (4.7 x your stature in inches) + (4.35 x your weight in pounds) – (4.7 x your age in years). Add 655 to the total basal metabolic rate.

The BMR equation for the average male is: (12.7 x your height in inches) + (6.23 x your weight in pounds) – (6.8 x your age in years).

Add 66 to the BMR's total.

You will be using your BMR in the Harris Benedict equation to discover what number of calories you need.

2. Calculate your total energy consumption with the Harris Benedict Equation.

The Harris Benedict Equation lets you figure out what number of calories you consume every day by increasing your BMR with your normal physical activity.

  1. Multiply your BMR with your activity levels. This will come up with an accurate result of your daily calorie intake.

In case you’re inactive or having zero exercise, multiple your BMR by 1.2.

In the event that you are having light activity or exercising around 1-to-3 days every week, you should multiply your BMR by 1.375.

In the event that you are moderately as well as play sports 3 to 5 days, multiply your BMR by 1.55.

In the event that you are taking part in strenuous activities or hard exercise for 6 to 7 days per week, multiple your BMR by 1.725.

In the event that you are very active with physically difficult exercise, for example, twice a day workouts, multiply your BMR by 1.9.

4. Consider body fats percentage

The more muscular you are or the less body fat you have, the greater will be your daily calorie requirements.

In the event that you are an athlete or have low amounts of body fat, you may need a bigger number of calories than usually required.

Lean muscle consumes more calories than fats.

Eating a small quantity may additionally help you attain more suitable calorie goals.

Also, be aware that overweight or obese humans may additionally overestimate daily calories with the Harris Benedict method.


Transdermal Estradiol Progesterone Can Improve Cognitive Brain FunctionAnother investigation has shown that there are brain benefits of transdermal estradiol blended with an oral progesterone for postmenopausal women.

Hormones affect a great deal that goes ahead in a woman’s body, from reproductive functioning and sexual drive to weight gain and general psychological wellness.

Another investigation indicates how, in the correct dose and blend, hormones may enhance brain functioning in postmenopausal females as they age.


The results are published in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

Estradiol Progesterone and Brain Function

It does not shock anyone that intellectual capacity decreases as we age.

We experience memory decline in a multitude of ways, such as forgetting a grocery list every now and then.

Mild cognitive impairment is characterized as that middle stage between aging and dementia.

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment have more danger of advancing to Alzheimer’s disease or other dementia, with about 20% of this population traversing from mild cognitive impairment to a more extreme degree every year.

To this point, no pharmacologic cure has been deemed to be effective in managing mild cognitive impairment.

Hormones and Mild Cognitive Impairment

The investigation is about the aftereffects of a Korean study that involves the consequence of hormone treatment on psychological capacity.

The study monitored postmenopausal women who were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and were taking donepezil over a 24-month period. The investigators confirmed that cognitive scan ratings for the women who received hormones enormously multiplied during that point.

Even though the group was small, the examination presents promising results, exhibiting that the blend of transdermalestradiol and an oral progesterone can back off cognitive decline. That is the first study to survey the aftereffects of hormone treatment on mild cognitive impairment.

This empowering, little pilot study recommends a conceivable advantage of hormone treatment when given to females who have mild cognitive impairment who are likewise taking donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor.

More cognition is one of the three key measures in those women who are using estradiol gel in addition to an oral micronized progesterone compared those taking placebo. More studies are needed to survey the results of hormone treatment use before the full start of Alzheimer disease.