Breast fibroadenoma is a benign tumor characterized by proliferation of stromal and glandular elements of the breast. It is the most common form of benign breast tumor and is observed in the first three decades of life. Formation appears as single, rarely multiple 1-5 cm diameter, well delimited, with a smooth surface, mobile on the over and underlying plans, rarely adjacent to the skin, painless, do not change during the menstrual cycle and regress at menopause.
The etiology incriminated is changes in plasma estrogen levels and changes in the estrogen%progesterone ratios.
Causes Of Breast Fibroadenoma
Fibroadenomas are benign tumors composed of stromal and epithelial cells. They are seen mostly in young women. Multiple fibroadenomas may indicate a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. Patients with fibroadenoma, have a increased risk of approximately two times compared to healthy ones. These tumors shows hyperplastic or proliferating processes in a single ductal unit. Their development is considered an aberration of normal development of the breast. The cause of these tumors is unknown. Approximately 10% of fibroadenomas spontaneously disappear every year, and in most ceases they stop growing after reaching 2-3 cm.
Fibroadenoamas can regress in postmenopausal women. They can develop intraductal calcifications. Conversely, can grow rapidly in pregnancy, hormonal therapy or immunosuppression, in which case malignant trasnformation is stimulated. Immunosuppression in patients with multiple fibroadenoamas relates to Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Breast Fibroadenoma Signs And Symptoms
Fibroadenoma may occur in girls and women of any age. Tumors generally regress after menopause. They rarely occur in elder women, so any new solid lesion in an elderly woman should be considered malignant until proven otherwise. Cancers are the most common solid tumors in postmenopausal women.
Fibroadenoma has a prevalence of 7-10 percent in women over 40 years. Fibroadenoma is the most common solid breast tumors after breast cancer. Fibdroadenoamas are common in young women due to the fact that woman under 40 are not investigated using imaging methods. Detection through palpation is the most common method by which tumors are discovered in this age group.
On clinical examination fibroadenoma lesions are round, movable, elastic, can be palpable or nonpalpable. Their size varies from 1 cm to 15 cm in diameter.
Most often, the tumors are removed when they have between 2-4 cm in diameter. Young women usually present palpable tumors. Fibroadenoma is often detected accidentally at a medical examination or self-examination as a discrete solitary mass of 1-2 cm. Although they may be located anywhere in the breast, they are frequently discovered in the upper quadrant. Fibroadenomas have a consistency of rubber they are soft and painless.
Cancer can be caused by the presence of a fibroadenoma. Incrising size, changes in margin regularity and small calcification development suggest the onset of breast cancer.