Hyperuricemia is defined by values of uric acid over 7 mg/dl in men or over 6 mg/dl in women. Hyperuricemia appears in many cases, of which the most common in gout, a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of painful inflammation of joints due to uric acid crystals deposit. Uric acid can be increased in other circumstances like cardiovascular diseases, obesity, kidney failure, alcohol, food excess (especially meat and organs), diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, diuretic therapy. For this reason the interpretation of the increased amount of uric acid should be done by a doctor, knowing the persons individual characteristics: diseases, treatment, diet.
Treatment of metabolic disorders, including hyperuricemia, always starts from an assessment that goes beyond the finding of analysis outside normal limits. The finding of hyperuricemia can be not followed by any specific measure, if it predicts that the uric acid will return to normal values (unbalanced diabetes), or require a long term treatment (gout). Of course, if there are clinical manifestations (joints, kidneys), the doctor will recommend specif measures for each problem.
In all cases, if is necessary to set a long-term treatment to lower the uric acid, this treatment refers to two measures: diet and medication.
In hyperuricemia and gout, diet consists in several types of measures. A specific measure is to reduce purines consumption, which are present in large proportion in organs, meat extracts, yeast, seafood and some fish (sardines, herring, mackerel, anchovy). Plants with high content of purine are spinach, peas, beans. Mushrooms have high content of purine too.
Among alcoholic beverages, moderate wine consumption appears to be protective, while beer and spirits must be avoided.
Equally important, hyperuricemia is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, for which all measures aimed at weight loss and at measures against atherosclerosis are listed in hyperuricemia. Reducing fat can directly contribute to a better elimination of uric acid. At the same time is recommended a good hydration and consumption of food with beneficial proprieties: low-fat dairy products, foods rich in vitamin C. Also, if there is a recommendation for medication (allopurinol), treatment should be followed and reviewed regularly (depending not only on uric acid, but others parameters like creatinine, age, weight).