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Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes

How do you know if you have diabetes? If the doctors suspects that you have diabetes it is because you probably have some risk factors for diabetes. It may also be because you have high levels of blood sugar in your urine. Your blood sugar, which is also called as blood glucose, levels may be high if the pancreas is producing little or no insulin (then you have type 1 diabetes) or if the body is not responding normally to insulin (type 2 diabetes). Diagnosis can be easy with a few medical tests. The most prominent three tests are-

A fasting glucose test

It is a test of your blood sugar levels which is taken in the morning before you eat anything. If you have a blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL or higher, it means you have diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

This test, you drink a beverage containing glucose and then the blood glucose levels are checked every 30 to 60 minutes for up to 3 hours. If the glucose level is 200 mg/dL or higher at two hours, then you might have diabetes.

A1c test

It is a simple blood test which will calculate your average blood sugar levels for the past 2 to 3 months. If the A1c level is 6.5% or higher, it may mean you have diabetes.

Treatment options

What are the treatment options that you have if you have diabetes? Diabetes is a serious disease and it’s not possible for you to treat it yourself. You will need the help of a doctor to make a diabetes treatment plan which is right for you. Other healthcare professionals may also be necessary in the treatment team which may include a foot doctor, I doctor, nutritionist and the diabetes specialist or endocrinologist.

Along with the proper team and a plan, you will need to keep close watch over your blood sugar levels. You will need to track it continuously and will also have to control it by using a combination of medicines, exercise and diet. These three elements are very crucial for you if you are suffering from diabetes.

Diabetes medicines

People who suffer from type 1 diabetes, in the cases the pancreas no longer makes sense will in necessary for the body to use blood sugar for energy. In that case, the patient will need insulin in the form of injections or through a continuous pump. If you are suffering from it, you will need to learn to give injections to yourself. If your infant or child is suffering from the disease, you will need to learn to administer injections to them. Even though it may feel very difficult and daunting, it is not and you can learn it quite easily. You can also use an insulin pump, which is a computerised pump and it will give you insulin on a set basis. The pump is programmed to deliver a certain amount of insulin throughout the day.

Nutrition

Your diet will play a very crucial role and so you need a balanced diet if you’re suffering from diabetes. You can take help of a dietician to prepare a menu plan. When you eat and how much you eat and what you eat all are crucial and so you need help from experts like your doctor or dietician. Generally doctors may recommend three small meals and 3 to 4 snacks everyday which is necessary for maintaining proper balance between silver and insulin in the blood.

Exercise

This is a critical element in your treatment program for diabetes and you will need regular exercise because it will improve your body’s use of insulin and may also reduce blood sugar levels.

References

1. Amazing Diabetes Guide
2. Diabetes
3. What is Diabetes?