Researchers at VIB and Ghent University have located an essential mechanism of sepsis and septic shock, an overreaction of the body’s immune machine to an infection. On this circumstance, the brain is unable to decrease an inflammatory response, causing organ failure or ‘septic shock’. This scenario is the most frequent reason of death in hospitals.
As it turns out, data about infections is handed to our brain thru extracellular vesicles which are small particles in cerebrospinal fluid. Those insights can provide upward thrust to new strategies to treat sepsis or even different inflammatory situations.
In sepsis, early inflammation is associated with low blood pressure and the formation of blood clots, inflicting the organs to stop operating. At the same time as the root is an infection, comparable inflammatory responses can arise in the case of injury, which includes severe burns or accidents caused by accidents. These conditions are labeled under SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome). Even as medical doctors can every now and then deal with the underlying infection with antibiotics or provide synthetic help for essential features, no real treatment for SIRS or sepsis has been developed to this point.
The VIB-Ghent University Research venture, led by professor Roosmarijn Vandenbroucke, explored an underrepresented research field, which is the characteristic of extracellular vesicles. It was long thought that these small structures in organic fluids have been released from cells to rid them of cell waste. But, the scientists proved that blood inflammation affects the brain’s choroid plexus, the component that produces brain fluid, to release extracellular vesicles which switch the inflammatory sign to the brain.
Professor Vandenbroucke again remarked, “When trauma or an infection occurs, a specific part of the brain detects abnormal blood levels or the presence of foreign substances such as bacteria. Consequently, extracellular vesicles are released containing vital information about the body’s condition. These vesicles then travel through the brain fluid to eventually reach the central nervous system and alert the brain. In brief, we found a new way of blood-to-brain communication that is detrimental in septic shock.”
The findings may be seen as the missing link among infections and inflammation. The significance of those consequences was illustrated with the study team’s successful blockage of vesicle secretion in mice by an inhibitor of vesicle production. This shows that, in time, inflammatory conditions consisting of sepsis could be handled this way in humans.
Professor Vandenbroucke further added, “Our data show that the frequently occurring cytokine TNF, which is a substance released upon the occurrence of inflammation, also stimulates the release of extracellular vesicles. One of the next steps is to investigate the therapeutic potential of changing the process of extracellular vesicle release. All of this strengthens our hope in further exploring the links between vesicles and inflammation.”