Kidney Stones And Renal Colic
Most people think kidney stones cause excruciating pain. However there are several treatment methods for removal or destruction without major discomfort. ForÂ people diagnosed withÂ large kidney stones , the doctor will recommend aÂ more aggressive treatment. Regardless of size, everyone whoÂ has kidney stones should call the doctor to remove them, pain reliefÂ due toÂ painkillers does not solve the problem.
Kidney stones or urinary calculi develop from salts and minerals that are transported by the urine,Â with a hardÂ consistencyÂ andÂ sizes ranging from several millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Although derived from the kidney,Â kidney stones will be removed from the body through the urinary tractÂ with difficultyÂ (ureter, bladder and urethra) and often can beÂ even block the flow of urine.
Kidney StonesÂ Risk Factors
- Excessive loss of water by sweating – high concentration and diminished urine volume that leads to precipitation of urine substances
- Obstruction of the urinary tract
- Urinary tract infections
- Metabolic changes like hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricemia, cystinuria.
Kidney StoneÂ Causes
There are some people prone to kidney stones andÂ occur mostly in:
- People who doÂ not drink enough fluids
- Aged 30-60 years
- Have a family history including the presence of gallstones
- Live in arid and hot zone.
Kidney stones form when urine has too high content of minerals and saltsÂ that harden. Sometimes, when the stone passes from the kidney to theÂ ureter, urination is painful and is difficult.
Kidney StonesÂ Symptoms
- Severe back pain
- Pain that is felt in the pelvis, genitals and lower abdomen
- Intense sensation of burning during urination
- Fever and chills
- Hematuria (bloody urine)
- Urine cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- Loss of appetite.
Kidney StonesÂ Types and Diagnosis
There are several types of kidney stones:
- Those formedÂ of calcium or calcium oxalate are the most common.
- Struvite stones containÂ Â crystallized magnesium and ammonia . They are formed mainlyÂ due toÂ urinary tract infections.
- Uric acid stones occur in people who have a high acidity of urine.
- Cystine stones are rare and usually areÂ found in the same families.
Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound, intravenousÂ pielography, retrogradeÂ pielography and computed tomography can be used to indicate the size and location of kidney stones. These investigations can be extremely useful to determine theÂ potential risks of eliminating the kidneyÂ stone naturally orÂ whether a minimal intervention or more aggressive treatment is needed.
Kidney StonesÂ Treatment
There are several types of treatments for kidney stones. The doctor may prefer a particular technique over another, depending on theÂ size and location of theÂ kidney stone,Â and also depending on theÂ treatment thatÂ has been followed.
Because many kidney stones are small enough to be eliminated naturally during urination, the doctor may recommend the patient to drink plenty ofÂ water (liquids will help remove the stone). In some cases it is necessary to administer painkillers so that pain can be tolerated. When a person removes a stoneÂ it isÂ indicated that the stoneÂ is preserved and taken to the laboratory to analyze the content. This can determine which foods to avoid (those that could contribute to stone formation). Besides drinking water, lemon juicesÂ can be consumed that are designed to stimulate the elimination of the stone.
Other therapeutic strategies
Lithotripsy (ESWL) Extracorporeal Shock Wave.Â This technique is suitable forÂ breaking a kidney stone. With a special device, shock waves from the skin willÂ be oriented to the kidney stone crushing it intoÂ tiny fragments that can be eliminated afterwardsÂ naturally through the urinary system.
Percutaneous Nephrolitotomy. This procedure is used when kidney stones are large and involves inserting a tube through a small incision in the skin,Â from the back side to the abdomen and kidneys to help drainage. A fiber optic camera, called nefroscop provides accurate images of the location of the stone. Using a probe supplied with energy, kidney stones will be disintegrated into small pieces.
UretroscopyÂ (retrograde and anterograde). The Ureteroscope is a small optical instrument with a very thin tube,Â with aÂ camera and a small case, that is inserted through the urethra, bladder and ureter toÂ the place where the stone is. There are two techniques in wich the kidneyÂ stoneÂ can be removed: either is caught in the housing and it breaks or itÂ is pulled out through an instrument inserted into theÂ ureteroscope.
Kidney StonesÂ Prevention
Firstly,Â each person should drink plenty of fluids. If the familyÂ has other people who suffered from kidney stonesÂ you should pay special attention toÂ your urinary system health. Without enough water, thereÂ are more chancesÂ that the salt and mineralsÂ that are present in urine to form kidneyÂ stones. Do not exceed the daily amount of 1-2 cups of caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee, cola, etc.)
Diet will change as follows:
- If theÂ kidney stones areÂ composed of oxalate, the doctor may recommend limiting intake of citrus fruit, chocolate, beer,Â vitamin C supplements ofÂ green vegetables.
- ForÂ kidney stones made of calcium saltÂ will be limited in the diet.
- For uric acid stones red meat, fish and chicken consumption will be reducedÂ to lower the acidity of urine.
TheÂ urologistÂ may recommend diuretics, cellulose phosphate or potassium citrate to facilitate the excretion of calcium in people who have had kidney stones composed of calcium.