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For people who suffer from various psychiatric and neurological conditions, brain stimulation has become an increasingly important treatment option in the recent decades.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Brain simulation techniques can be divided into two broad categories, invasive and noninvasive. Both of them work by targeting specific sites in the brain to adjust the overall brain activity. Among the most well-known invasive techniques is the deep brain stimulation (DBS) which requires a brain surgery and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process is typically used for treated Parkinson's disease and this process requires an electrode to be inserted in the brain. Among the noninvasive techniques is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which can be administered from outside the head. This treatment is currently approved for treating depression.

Brain stimulation has resulted in dramatic benefits to patients with such disorders, which has motivated researchers to test if it can be useful in treated patients suffering from other diseases. The problem is that doctors have been unable to pinpoint which are the ideal sites to administer simulation in a given patient for a given condition.

A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) suggest that brain networks which consists of the interconnected pathways that link brain circuits to one another can assist in selection of ideal spot for brain stimulation therapies.

Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, First author of the study, an investigator in the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and in the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center at BIDMC remarked that although different types of brain stimulation are currently applied in different locations, it has been found that the targets used to treat the same disease are nodes in the same connected brain network. This can have a direct implication on how brain stimulations are administered to treat diseases.

For example, in order use brain stimulation to treat Parkinson’s disease or tremor an electrode need to be inserted deep in the brain. Getting the same effect with noninvasive stimulation is difficult, as the spot is deep in the brain. However, by looking at the brain’s network connectivity, sites can be identified on the surface of the brain that is connected with the deep spot site. Hence, that deep spot can also be stimulated noninvasively.

For this study Fox's team conducted a large-scale literature search to find out all neurological and psychiatric diseases where brain stimulation via both invasive and non-invasive techniques had shown improvement. The search found 14 such conditions namely addiction, Alzheimer’s disease, anorexia, depression, dystonia, epilepsy, essential tremor, gait dysfunction, Huntington’s disease, minimally conscious state, obsessive compulsive disorder, pain, Parkinson disease and Tourette syndrome. In the next step, they listed the stimulation sites, both deep in the brain or on the surface of the brain that was found to have been effective for the treatment of each of the 14 diseases.

In order to test the hypothesis that the various stimulation sites in the brain are different spots within the same brain network, Fox's team used a data base of functional MRI images and a technique that enabled them to see correlations in spontaneous brain activity. These correlations helped the investigators in creating a map of connections from deep brain stimulation sites to the surface of the brain. When this map was compared to sites for noninvasive brain stimulation on the brain surface, the two matched.

The study suggest that understanding the brain networks can help in understanding why brain stimulation works and how these therapies can be improved by identifying the best place to stimulate the brain for a given patient suffering from a given disease. These findings also suggest that resting-state functional connectivity can be useful for translating therapy between treatment modalities, optimizing treatment and identifying new stimulation targets.




Complementary Reading

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)disorders are known as different medical problems. It is a condition where persistent teeth grinding is generally seen. Similar symptoms are also seen in case of bruxism. However, there are some differences between bruxism and TMJ.

Bruxism (teeth grinding)

It is a voluntary or habitual grinding or cleanching of the teeth. If it occurs during the sleep, it is known asleep bruxism. You will become aware of this problem by looking at the symptoms. The symptoms include headaches, jaw pain, lose teeth, mouth pain and teeth sensitivity.

Bruxism is not very common but at the same time it is not also uncommon. About one in 10 people may suffer from bruxism. Bruxism happens because of several reasons. The main factors include stress, diet, an attorney and pharmacology.


If you are under high stress level all the time, you are likely to have some health impacts. Vascular and psychiatric problems may result from such high stress situations. The stress factors include interpersonal relationships, finances, work and general health. Stress may result in bruxism without you even knowing about it.

Dental anatomy

Due to poor structural alignment of your teeth, you may suffer from bruxism. If the structure of your teeth is not what it should be, it may create problems when you chew food. Sometimes, you may need to increase effort and force while eating and chewing. It may result in pain, discomfort and sometimes dental damage and may cause bruxism.


If you are suffering from nutritional deficiencies because your diet is not able to provide you with the necessary vitamins and minerals, than you may suffer from bruxism. Such deficiencies can have direct negative effect on your body and different systems. Destructive and self reinforcing reactions may happen as a result of nonavailability of the important and essential vitamins and nutrients. If you are eating a diet which is low in potassium, then it may result in muscle cramping, which will result in pain and that may result in emotional tension. Such attention can result in muscoskeletal tension.


Some of the medicines may cause bruxism in some people. Narcotics and other psycho biological agents may also cause such problems. You should be very careful while using any of the products that increase activation of the sympathetic nervous system because they can result in brauxism and TMJ. Coffee, sugar, tobacco and even some prescription medications may also stimulate this part of the nervous system too much and may result in these problems.


TMJ syndromes have some specific characteristic symptoms which include characteristic clicking and popping sound, pain or discomfort in the juncture between the jaw and skull, felt and heard inside or in front of the ear. It can result from bruxism.

Bruxism is a behaviour but TMJ is not a behavioural dysfunction. Bruxism is a distinct condition but TMJ dysfunction is very difficult to find out. That is why you will find so many conflicting information about TMJ.

This disorder may show up in different ways. And the multiple manifestations of this problem is not yet fully known. The term TMJ syndromesť include a lot many different types of syndromes under one umbrella. The most common symptom of TMJ is the clicking or popping sound. The pain or discomfort in the juncture between the jaw and skulll is another common symptom. You can hear the sound yourself.

Sometimes, it may be very difficult for you to find out what problem you have. A certified medical practitioner will be able to help you to diagnose it better.


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3. TMJ Disorders

Shoulder pain can be caused by different types of conditions and causes. It may be a minor injury, bad posture or some underlying health issues. The most common conditions that can cause shoulder pain are- frozen shoulder, rotator cuff disorders, shoulder instability, a broken arm, a broken collarbone and acromioclavicular joint disorders etc.

Frozen shoulder

Provisions shoulder is also known by another name adhesive capsulitis. It is a painful persistent stiffness of the shoulder joint and it makes the full range of shoulder movements impossible. This condition happens when thickening, tightening or swelling of the flexible tissue surrounding the shoulder joint happens. As a result of this condition, your upper arm bone or humerus present in the shoulder joint has less space and the result of that is stiff and painful movement. When this happens, you will not be able to perform the everyday tasks including simple things like dressing, driving and sleeping. When this happens, some people cannot even move their shoulder.

Rotator cuff disorders

This is another cause of shoulder pain. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons surrounding the shoulder joint. Tendons are the link between the muscles and bones. The rotator cuff is important because it keeps the joint in the correct position and allows it to move in a controlled way. Even though there may be different types of rotator cuff disorders, but the common symptoms include pain during activities involving your arm in the above shoulder level position, pain while moving your arm away from your body, pain on the front inside of your shoulder and pain at night.

Shoulder instability

Another reason of shoulder pain can be shoulder instability. The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint. Here, the ball is the upper arm bone or humerus and the socket is in the shoulder blade. Shoulder instability may occur for different reasons. If the shoulder joint does not move correctly in the socket, then shoulder instability may occur. Slipping or catching feeling in the shoulder may happen because of shoulder instability. A full shoulder dislocation may also happen when the ball comes out of the socket completely. The symptoms of such instability can be different and sometimes vague. There may be tingling; weakness; numbness; shoulder fatigue; a clicking, locking or popping sensation may happen in the arm. In case of people whose shoulder has been dislocated, there will be clear symptoms of the problem which will include severe pain, out of position arm, muscle spasms and limited movements. Shoulder instability may be of different types. It can be traumatic or atraumatic. In case of traumatic shoulder instability, the shoulder is forced out of place by a sudden impact. On the other hand, in case of atraumatic shoulder instability, the shoulder gradually moves out of place over a longer duration.

Workplace health

In some cases shoulder pain can be caused by bad posture. More and more people are using computers in their workplaces and even at home and they are doing the same repetitive task for a long duration of time. There are some other people who were doing repetitive manual work. In such cases, bad posture while working can result in shoulder pain in different people.

Acromioclavicular joint disorders

In case of acromioclavicular joint disorders may happen in the acromioclavicular joint, which is present at the top of your shoulder. Some of these disorders include osteoarthritis, tearing of stretching of the ligaments in the joint, partial or complete dislocation of the joint. The symptoms of this disorder include pain in the joint, limited movement of the joint, pain on the top of the shoulder etc.


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The following tips will help you to control your high blood pressure naturally.

Lose extra pounds

If you are overweight or obese, probably you already have high blood pressure. Blood pressure often increases along with your weight. If you are overweight, it may cause breathing problems and that alone can increase your blood pressure. Weight loss is a very effective method of controlling your blood pressure. If you can simply lose 4.5 kg of weight, you'll be able to reduce your blood pressure.

You should also keep your waistline in check. If it is growing too big, you are likely to have high blood pressure. If you carry too much weight around your waist that increases the possibility of high blood pressure and so it is important that you check your waistline. In case of men, waistline more than 40 inches means they are at risk of high blood pressure. In case of women the waist measurement should be below 35 inches.

A healthy diet

A healthy diet is very much important because your physical condition depend a lot on what you eat. The same way your blood pressure levels will also depend a lot on the foods that you consume. It's very important to eat a healthy diet that is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. You will need to reduce the amount of food that contains high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol. Following such a diet can use your blood pressure by up to 14 mm Hg. It is well known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.

Keeping a food diary will help you to find out what you are consuming regularly. It will be easier than to make some necessary changes because you'll be able to find out your true eating habits. It will also help you to find out how much, what and when you are eating.

Increasing potassium consumption will reduce the effect of sodium on blood pressure. The best source of that I fruits and vegetables. Your doctor will be able to help you to understand how much potassium you need. Making a habit of reading the food levels will help you to eat healthy and keep doing that without any problem.

Regular exercise

This is a very well-known and effective measure to control your blood pressure naturally. You need at least 30 minutes of physical exercise every day to keep your heart healthy and to ensure that you do not suffer from high blood pressure. Consistency is very important in exercising because if you stop doing it, your blood pressure will rise again. If you have slight high blood pressure or pre-hypertension, it is possible to stop it from developing into hypertension by simply exercising regularly. The best exercises for reducing blood pressure are walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing. If you are into strength training, that will also help you by reducing your blood pressure.

Reduce sodium consumption

It is very important for you to reduce sodium consumption if you want to reduce your high blood pressure. It is possible to reduce your blood pressure by 2 to 8 mm Hg by changing the amount of sodium you are consuming. It is important for you to reduce sodium to a level less than 2300 mg a day. However, African-Americans, people of age 51 or older, people diagnosed with high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease or diabetes should consume only 1500 mg of sodium everyday.

It will be easier for you to reduce sodium consumption by reading the food levels, eating less processed foods and reducing the amount of salt in different dishes.

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Whether you're a bodybuilder, weightlifter, or sports fan, perhaps you have probably heard the term Human Growth Hormone or commonly known as HGH. According to some, HGH is associated with steroid use and cheating. Actually, it is considered as a natural testosterone booster that offers several benefits and produced on its own.

On the other hand, HGH can increase muscle strengths, improved weight loss, reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and it makes an individual's bones stronger as well. Aside from these, HGH can offer both men and women a lot of health benefits and advantages. However, if your body lacks growth hormone you may possibly suffer from GHD or growth hormone deficiency and worst severe health diseases will be developed.

Fortunately, in today's age and day, there are so many natural ways on how to uplift the levels of growth hormone. Such as healthy lifestyle, regular sleep, good diet, proper nutrition, and more.  In addition, you can also undergo an HGH therapy if to upsurge your growth hormone level immediately thought it an expensive alternative yet one of the most effective.

For the past couple of years, the only available human growth hormone therapy option is HGH injections but these days, there are so many HGH treatments. However, many individuals prefer to use HGH injections like Nutropin, Saizen, and Genotropin. But, this growth hormone therapy must be injected every day.  Nevertheless, let us find more about HGH injections.


What are the Advantages of HGH Injections?

According hghinjections.us, HGH injections can boost growth hormone levels instantly and works in all our body parts. It was also concluded that this kind of HGH therapy is the best one that is why both men and women, young and adults who are suffering from growth hormone deficiency choose to be treated using HGH injections. In addition, here are the other advantages of HGH injections.

  • Prevents premature aging
  • Improves immune system
  • Reduce the appearance of aging spots
  • Controls sleep patterns
  • Enhance memory function
  • Improves eyesight
  • Reduce body fat in just a short period of time
  • It heals wounds more rapidly

Similar to other kinds of treatment, HGH injection also come with side effects on the other hand.


Side Effects of HGH Injections

The majority of individuals who are undergoing HGH injection treatment may possibly experience a few problems. Here are some of the many side effect of injectable HGH:

  • Joint Discomfort
  • Muscle aches
  • Swelling of both feet and hands
  • Headaches

However, if you already experience a few of these side effects, make sure to consult your doctor as soon as possible so that, they can change the dosage of your shots if necessary.

On the other hand, individuals who have multiple injuries, severe breathing issues, cancer, tumors, and serious illness are not allowed to take HGH injections.


Despite the fact that HGH injection is the best way to cure growth hormone deficiency you should also consider other options especially if your pituitary gland is not yet damaged. In fact, some leading physicians say, that increasing HGH naturally is safer than injections and other HGH therapies since they come with side effect and worst a few of them are associated with severe illnesses such as leukemia, diabetes, breast cancer, water retention, and carpal tunnel syndrome.  




It's alarming to know that a lot of people are obese. It is considered an epidemic that has close ties to heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Its increasing number every single year is frightening. But no matter how hopeless it may look, there are ways to remedy it and of them is weight loss surgery. Weight loss surgery is expensive. The average cost of weight loss surgery is $15,000 to $28,000. And on top of that, it isn't technically a magic pill or quick fix to lose some weight.


Here are five things you should know about weight loss surgery.


  1. It requires participation on the patient's part.


Weight loss surgery isn't the answer to obesity. Just like achieving anything for a healthier body, it requires lifestyle changes on the patient's part and an active participation. The patient must change their food intake and exercise regularly burn more calories. Weight loss surgery will not immediately lead you to your desired weight and healthy state. It should come hand in hand with exercise and a healthy diet.


  1. Not everyone can be a candidate for weight loss surgery.


Every patient must be examined by a doctor and there is a criterion that needed to be looked at in order to determine if weight loss surgery is an option. While it is said that BMI or the body mass index is an imperfect measure of one's health, it is still something doctors consider before they decide that weight loss surgery is for you. If things can be remedied by exercise and changing the diet, doctors would never advise operation if they can help it.


  1. Weight loss surgery is just the start.


Maintaining your weight requires hard work and consistency. After a weight loss surgery, the patient would have to maintain a lifelong change of diet and lifestyle. After the surgery, the patient would have to follow a restricted liquid diet for some time before returning back to a normal food. Vitamin intake is also advised right after because the body will be losing a lot of minerals and nutrients for eating less.


  1. It can eliminate one's issues with health.


Right after a weight loss surgery, the patient will have a tendency to have a loss or decrease of appetite. This leads to a decrease on food intake and then eventually to weight loss. Losing weight can positively affect one's health and eliminate high blood pressure, back pain, and even Type 2 diabetes.


  1. There are side effects.


Just like taking medications or going through any surgery, a weight loss surgery can also have side effects that you may never avoid. It can be pretty annoying, but it's not something that you can't work on and be prepared for. These side effects may include sweating a lot, nausea, weakness, and issues with digesting. A lot of times, patients who have undergone a weight loss surgery will also experience frequent trips to the toilet. Side effects right after the surgery are inevitable, and if it gets serious, you will be advised by doctors to have a further check.

Bronchitis is nothing but an inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes. These tubes are the air passages between the mouth and nose and lungs. If the bronchial tubes are inflamed because of one or other reason, you will have a condition known as bronchitis. When this happens, you can only take less amount of air and oxygen into your lungs. You will also not be able to clear heavy mucus or phlegm from the airways.

Bronchitis can result from viruses, bacteria and other particles. When they irritate the bronchial tubes, bronchitis happens. Acute bronchitis is a short illness and it is generally seen after a cold or a viral infection. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis is a long-term illness. Chronic bronchitis may result from an environmental factors or extended illness. It is seen that cigarette smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis

As mentioned earlier, it is a short-term illness. It generally follows a cold or viral infection. The patient will have cough with mucus, soreness and chest discomfort. Sometimes, fever and shortness of breath maybe they. It generally lasts for a few days or weeks only.

Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a serious illness. Symptoms of this illness includes persistent, mucus producing cough that continues for more than three months. If you suffer from such a cough for three months out of the year for more than two years, then you should be careful and see a doctor to find out if you are suffering from chronic bronchitis. It is seen that people who suffer from this problem generally have different degrees of breathing difficulties. The symptoms of the problem may get better or worse. Sometimes if this type of bronchitis happens at the same time with emphysema, then it can result in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Causes of bronchitis

The most common cause of bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. And it may happen due to viruses, bacteria or other particles that can irritate the tubes.

Causes of acute bronchitis

Virus is the main cause of acute bronchitis. These are the viruses which also cause cold and flu. Sometimes, a cute bronchitis may also be caused by bacterial infections and exposure to substances. These substances may include tobacco smoke, fumes, vapors, air pollution, dust etc. which irritate the lungs.

Causes of chronic bronchitis

If the airway tissue is repeatedly irritated and as a result of that lungs are damaged, then chronic bronchitis may happen. It is seen that smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. Other causes may include exposure to air pollution, dust, fumes and repeated cases of acute bronchitis.

Symptoms of bronchitis

There are several symptoms of bronchitis present which will help you to find out if you have that problem or not. These symptoms are common for both acute and chronic bronchitis. Such symptoms include

  • Persistent cough
  • Mucus producing cough
  • Wheezing
  • Low fever and chills
  • Sore throat
  • Chest tightening
  • Breathlessness
  • Body aches
  • Sinuses and blocked nose
  • Headaches

The most common and main symptom of acute bronchitis is a cough that generally lasts for several weeks. Sometimes such a cough may also lasts for several months. The duration of the cough will depend on how much time is necessary for complete healing of the bronchial tubes.

The most common symptom of chronic bronchitis is having a very bad cough two or more times every year. The cough becomes worse during the winter months.

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